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End of Year: Java and Cloud Sessions and Workshops

by admin at December 03, 2022 05:33 PM

  1. interactive live stream: #105th Questions and Answers [online event] Questions and Answers 5 Dec 2022
  2. JakartaOne Live session: Ideas for Lean, Maintainable and Productive Jakarta EE / MicroProfile Projects [online event]
    JakartaOne Live 6 Dec 2022
  3. workshop: Serverless Event-Driven Architectures with Serverless Java on AWS [online event] workshops 8 Dec 2022
  4. workshop: Serverless Persistence for Serverless Java on AWS [online event] workshops 15 Dec 2022

by admin at December 03, 2022 05:33 PM

I boosted the PushbackInputStream | OpenJDK Contrib | Java Coding | Head Crashing Informatics 66

by Markus Karg at December 03, 2022 05:00 PM

As #PushbackInputStream is quite similar to #BufferedInputStream, it was rather easy for me to apply the performance optimizations I already developed for BufferedInputStream to the PushbackInputStream. The contribution was accepted in November 2022, so it is now part of #OpenJDK (aka #Java) 20.

The change will make your application #transferTo bytes faster in case your source or target is a file stream and you wrapped it using a PushbackInputStream. For example, if you read the magic byte of a file to find out about the file type, then push it back and transferTo() the complete content to a specific image processing algorithm, the bytes will not walk through the in-memory buffer anymore, sparing processing time.

If you missed the original contribution last year, check my channel page, it is covered by a four-parts series!

If you like this video, please give it a thumbs up, share it, subscribe to my channel, or become my patreon Thanks! 🙂

by Markus Karg at December 03, 2022 05:00 PM

Payara Platform Deployment Issues? Try Switching Off XML Validation

by Petr Aubrecht at December 01, 2022 11:36 AM

During deployment of Jakarta EE applications to the Payara Server, all the xml files (e.g. web.xml, persinstence.xml) are verified against its schema.

Payara Platform includes all standard Jakarta EE schema, so there is typically no reason to download external schema to check against xml files. However, if the application uses external schema, in very rare cases, there may be an error during deployment. In this blog, I describe a quick fix to avoid this. 

by Petr Aubrecht at December 01, 2022 11:36 AM

"CraC Applied":SnapStart Java AWS Lambda Cold Start Acceleration in Action

by admin at November 30, 2022 02:17 PM

In this screencast I deployed a MicroProfile / Quarkus application as AWS Lambda ( using CDK and compared the cold- with the "snap"-start.

SnapStart / CraC was also covered at the: podcast episode with the title: "Java, CraC and Reducing Cold Start Duration with AWS Lambda SnapStart"

by admin at November 30, 2022 02:17 PM

A Maven starter for Jakarta EE projects

by F.Marchioni at November 29, 2022 01:05 PM

This short article will teach you how to kickstart a simple Jakarta EE project using a Maven archetype that includes the basic building blocks for developing an application. The Jakarta Eclipse starter The Jakarta EE starter is available in two flavours: Next, let’s run the above command and check the outcome: The built-in application includes ... Read more

The post A Maven starter for Jakarta EE projects appeared first on Mastertheboss.

by F.Marchioni at November 29, 2022 01:05 PM

What’s New in Jakarta REST 3.1 in Jakarta EE 10?

by Luqman Saeed at November 28, 2022 12:48 PM

The Representational State Transfer or RESTful architecture is a stateless, HTTP based communication standard for modern applications. It was originally proposed by Dr. Roy Fielding in hisPhD thesis. It has, over the years, become the default, programming language-agnostic means of enabling machine-to-machine communication. An application written in the Django framework in Python can have REST resources that are consumed by another application written in Java with Jakarta EE. Similarly, a Jakarta EE application can create resources that can be consumed by a C# application.  

by Luqman Saeed at November 28, 2022 12:48 PM

Hashtag Jakarta EE #152

by Ivar Grimstad at November 27, 2022 10:59 AM

Welcome to issue number one hundred and fifty-two of Hashtag Jakarta EE!

In the previous Hashtag Jakarta EE, I mentioned the release of Spring Framework 6.0 – the first major release in five years. This week, it is time for Spring Boot 3.0. Can you imagine that Spring Boot 2.0 was released 4.5 years ago? It feels like yesterday.

As with Spring Framework 6.0, Spring Boot 3.0 raises the baseline to Java SE 17, supports Jakarta EE 9, and selected Jakarta EE 10 specifications. It also comes with support for generating native images with GraalVM.

I suspect that when developers start their migration to Spring Framework 6.0 and Spring Boot 3.0 from earlier versions, they may face challenges due to the namespace migration from javax.* to jakarta.*. I have been pointing this out in all my Jakarta EE talks over the last couple of years, but since the audiences have mostly been those migrating from earlier versions of Jakarta EE, or Java EE, many Spring developers may have missed out on this. In an effort to make this a little more palatable, I have started submitting an abstract for a talk called Jakarta EE for Spring Developers. In this talk, I will address the namespace migration challenges specifically for applications based on Spring/Spring Boot. The first opportunity to attend this talk will be DeveloperWeek in Oakland, in February next year.

It is just a little more than one week until JakartaOne Livestream 2022 on December 6. If you haven’t registered yet, please do so now so you don’t miss out on anything. This 12+ hour event is a perfect way to wind down for the holidays.

As always, we have a food-related competition where you can win great prizes and glory. This year, we are going for Jakarta EE themed snack! It can be based on fruit as shown below but doesn’t have to be. If you’re more into salty or sugary snacks, that’s fine too. Just go crazy with whatever your taste is!

by Ivar Grimstad at November 27, 2022 10:59 AM

Yes, JakartaOne Livestream is on December 6th and you are invited!

by Tanja Obradovic at November 25, 2022 10:20 PM

Yes, JakartaOne Livestream is on December 6th and you are invited!


Our annual one-day virtual conference for developers and technical business leaders is taking place on December 6th this year! The program of the JakartaOne Livestream 2022 in English, has been published and I invite you to register for the event. Tune in on December 6th, sit back and enjoy!

The Program Committee, composed of prominent members of our community, had the very hard task of selecting talks this year, and the final list looks great! Thank you Edwin, Mala, Josh, Mary and Otavio!

The speaker line up is impressive and we are all excited to hear them talk about cloud native architecture, developer tools and testing, Jakarta EE, and MicroProfile!

Your hosts Shabnam, Ivar and I will have quite a few interesting conversations for you in the Studio Jakarta EE as well!

We’re looking forward to seeing you at JakartaOne Livestream 2022!

by Tanja Obradovic at November 25, 2022 10:20 PM

Hashtag Jakarta EE #151

by Ivar Grimstad at November 20, 2022 10:59 AM

Welcome to issue number one hundred and fifty-one of Hashtag Jakarta EE!

Congratulations to the Spring Team for the release of Spring Framework 6.0! This is the first major release of Spring Framework in more than five years as Spring Framework 5 was released in September 2017.

Among other things, version 6 comes with a Javaâ„¢ 17+ baseline as well as support for Jakarta EE 9+. The plus (+) behind the 9 for Jakarta EE indicates that they have incorporated support for a couple of the Jakarta EE 10 specifications, such as Jakarta Servlet 6.0 and Jakarta Persistence 3.1. Make sure to check out their wiki for guidance on how to upgrade to Spring Framework 6.0.

The Jakarta EE Platform Call for the last couple of weeks has been almost entirely about TCK challenges. The Challenge part is an important part of the Jakarta EE TCK process to ensure that the specifications are 100% implementable. Even if writing tests usually aren’t seen as glorified as writing other parts of the software, this is where you really can make an impact. The efforts around refactoring the Jakarta EE Platform TCK is a massive undertaking, and we can use all help we can get. The Monthly Jakarta EE TCK call (check the Jakarta EE Specifications Calendar) is an excellent place to start if you are curious about this.

Another important update is that there will be no Monthly Jakarta EE Architecture Call in December since it conflicts with JakartaOne Livestream 2022. We also decided to skip the January call due to the Holidays, so the next Monthly Jakarta EE Architecture Call will be on February 7, 2023, at 11:00 AM Eastern Time.

The agenda for JakartaOne Livestream on December 6, 2022, has been published. Please check it out, and register so you are guaranteed to receive all relevant information as soon as it is made available!

by Ivar Grimstad at November 20, 2022 10:59 AM

Jakarta EE and MicroProfile at EclipseCon Community Day 2022

by Reza Rahman at November 19, 2022 10:39 PM

Community Day at EclipseCon 2022 was held in person on Monday, October 24 in Ludwigsburg, Germany. Community Day has always been a great event for Eclipse working groups and project teams, including Jakarta EE/MicroProfile. This year was no exception. A number of great sessions were delivered from prominent folks in the community. The following are the details including session materials. The agenda can still be found here. All the materials can be found here.

Jakarta EE Community State of the Union

The first session of the day was a Jakarta EE community state of the union delivered by Tanja Obradovic, Ivar Grimstad and Shabnam Mayel. The session included a quick overview of Jakarta EE releases, how to get involved in the work of producing the specifications, a recap of the important Jakarta EE 10 release and as well as a view of what’s to come in Jakarta EE 11. The slides are embedded below and linked here.

Jakarta Concurrency – What’s Next

Payara CEO Steve Millidge covered Jakarta Concurrency. He discussed the value proposition of Jakarta Concurrency, the innovations delivered in Jakarta EE 10 (including CDI based @Asynchronous, @ManagedExecutorDefinition, etc) and the possibilities for the future (including CDI based @Schedule, @Lock, @MaxConcurrency, etc). The slides are embedded below and linked here. There are some excellent code examples included.

Jakarta Security – What’s Next

Werner Keil covered Jakarta Security. He discussed what’s already done in Jakarta EE 10 (including OpenID Connect support) and everything that’s in the works for Jakarta EE 11 (including CDI based @RolesAllowed). The slides are embedded below and linked here.

Jakarta Data – What’s Coming

IBM’s Emily Jiang kindly covered Jakarta Data. This is a brand new specification aimed towards Jakarta EE 11. It is a higher level data access abstraction similar to Spring Data and DeltaSpike Data. It encompasses both Jakarta Persistence (JPA) and Jakarta NoSQL. The slides are embedded below and linked here. There are some excellent code examples included.

MicroProfile Community State of the Union

Emily also graciously delivered a MicroProfile state of the union. She covered what was delivered in MicroProfile 5, including alignment with Jakarta EE 9.1. She also discussed what’s coming soon in MicroProfile 6 and beyond, including very clear alignment with the Jakarta EE 10 Core Profile. The slides are embedded below and linked here. There are some excellent technical details included.

MicroProfile Telemetry – What’s Coming

Red Hat’s Martin Stefanko covered MicroProfile Telemetry. Telemetry is a brand new specification being included in MicroProfile 6. The specification essentially supersedes MicroProfile Tracing and possibly MicroProfile Metrics too in the near future. This is because the OpenTracing and OpenCensus projects merged into a single project called OpenTelemetry. OpenTelemetry is now the de facto standard defining how to collect, process, and export telemetry data in microservices. It makes sense that MicroProfile moves forward with supporting OpenTelemetry. The slides are embedded below and linked here. There are some excellent technical details and code examples included.

See You There Next Time?

Overall, it was an honor to organize the Jakarta EE/MicroProfile agenda at EclipseCon Community Day one more time. All speakers and attendees should be thanked. Perhaps we will see you at Community Day next time? It is a great way to hear from some of the key people driving Jakarta EE and MicroProfile. You can attend just Community Day even if you don’t attend EclipseCon. The fee is modest and includes lunch as well as casual networking.

by Reza Rahman at November 19, 2022 10:39 PM

BufferedInputStream boosted AGAIN by OpenJDK Contrib | Java Coding | Head Crashing Informatics 65

by Markus Karg at November 19, 2022 05:00 PM

Recently I boosted #BufferedInputStream by contributing to #OpenJDK. There was one case open, in which performance did not excel. Now in my new contribution to OpenJDK, which is contained in #Java 20, I fixed this – so in two thirds of all use cases, transferTo() should not stand in the way of I/O offloading anymore!

If you missed the original contribution last year, check my channel page, it is covered by a four-parts series!

If you like this video, please give it a thumbs up, share it, subscribe to my channel, or become my patreon Thanks! 🙂

by Markus Karg at November 19, 2022 05:00 PM

Jersey 3.1.0 is finally released

by Jan at November 15, 2022 03:31 PM

We were waiting so long! But it is here, Jakarta EE 10 is released, all the implementations Jersey depends on are final, and so Jersey 3.1.0, the final release compatible with Jakarta REST 3.1 is finally released! There are a … Continue reading

by Jan at November 15, 2022 03:31 PM

gRPC made easy with Quarkus

by F.Marchioni at November 14, 2022 07:06 PM

This article discusses how to create applications with the gRPC framework and Quarkus. We will reuse the sample Service definition from first Java gRPC application and run it as Quarkus REST application. Defining the gRPC Service Firstly, we recommend reading this article for an introduction to the gRPC framework: Getting started with gRPC on Java ... Read more

The post gRPC made easy with Quarkus appeared first on Mastertheboss.

by F.Marchioni at November 14, 2022 07:06 PM

JFall 2022

November 04, 2022 09:56 AM

An impression of JFall by yours truly.


Sold out!

Packet room!

Very nice first keynote speaker by Saby Sengupta about the path to transform.
He is a really nice storyteller. He had us going.

Dutch people, wooden shoes, wooden hat, would not listen

  • Saby


Get the answer to three why questions. If the answers stop after the first why. It may not be a good idea.

This great first keynote is followed by the very well known Venkat Subramaniam about The Art of Simplicity.

The question is not what can we add? But What can we remove?

Simple fails less

Simple is elegant

All in al a great keynote! Loved it.

Design Patterns in the light of Lambdas

By Venkat Subramaniam

The GOF are kind of the grand parents of our industry. The worst thing they have done is write the damn book.
— Venkat

The quote is in the context of that writing down grandmas fantastic recipe does not work as it is based on the skill of grandma and not the exact amount of the ingredients.

The cleanup is the responsibility of the Resource class. Much better than asking developers to take care of it. It will be forgotten!

The more powerful a language becomes the less we need to talk about patterns. Patterns become practices we use. We do not need to put in extra effort.

I love his way of presenting, but this is the one of those times - I guess - that he is hampered by his own succes. The talk did not go deep into stuff. During his talk I just about covered 5 not too difficult subjects. I missed his speed and depth.

Still a great talk though.


Was actually very nice!

NLJUG update keynote

The Java Magazine was mentioned we (as Editors) had to shout for that!

Please contact me (@ivonet) if you have ambitions to either be an author or maybe even as a fellow editor of the magazine. We are searching for a new Editor now.

Then the voting for the Innovation Awards.

I kinda missed the next keynote by ING because I was playing with a rubix cube and I did not really like his talk

jakarta EE 10 platform

by Ivar Grimstad

Ivar talks about the specification of Jakarta EE.

To create a lite version of CDI it is possible to start doing things at build time and facilitate other tools like GraalVM and Quarkus.

He gives nice demos on how to migrate code to work in de jakarta namespace.

To start your own Jakarta EE application just go to en follow the very simple UI instructions

I am very proud to be the creator of that UI. Thanks, Ivar for giving me a shoutout for that during your talk. More cool stuff will follow soon.

Be prepared to do some namespace changes when moving from Java EE 8 to Jakarta EE.

All slides here


I had a fantastic day. For me, it is mainly about the community and seeing all the people I know in the community. I totally love the vibe of the conference and I think it is one of the best organized venues.

See you at JSpring.


November 04, 2022 09:56 AM

Jakarta EE with Liberty Tools for Eclipse IDE

November 04, 2022 12:00 AM

Since introducing Liberty Tools for Eclipse IDE in August, we’ve continued to add new features with each new early release. Currently at version 0.4, Liberty Tools now supports developing Jakarta EE applications and editing Liberty’s and server.env files.

Let’s take a closer look.

Develop Jakarta EE applications

Integration with the Eclipse Language Server for Jakarta EE (Eclipse LSP4Jakarta) helps you intuitively develop with Jakarta EE. Features such as autocompletion, quick-fixes and type-ahead seamlessly integrate into your day-to-day development, making it easy to find the right methods and annotations for your application.

Jakarta Quick Fix

Additionally, pre-configured annotations, methods and even full classes can be added to your application automatically with code snippets. These snippets get you up and running fast without having to worry about syntax, annotations or referencing example code.

Jakarta Hover

Edit Liberty server config

Liberty Tools now supports config assist and auto-completion when you edit and server.env files. You can easily look up the properties and values you need without leaving your IDE.

Liberty Bootstrap Properties

Try it out!

Like what you see? Check out Liberty Tools for Eclipse to try the early release out for yourself, give feedback, and see what’s coming next as we prepare for v1.0.

The Jakarta community is always looking for contributors. Check out the Language Server for Jakarta EE to contribute to the project!

November 04, 2022 12:00 AM

More Jakarta EE 10 and MicroProfile 6 features make their debut in Open Liberty!

October 27, 2022 12:00 AM

As we progress towards full Jakarta EE 10 compliance, the release includes six new Jakarta EE 10 specifications, alongside the ones that were included in previous beta releases.

Jakarta Batch 2.1 provides improved CDI integration while Jakarta XML Web Services 4.0 now incorporates Jakarta Web Services Metadata. Jakarta Pages 3.1 provides developers an option to raise Exceptions for undefined Expression Language Identifiers, while Jakarta Tags 3.0 includes Tag URI renaming when referencing tag libraries. Jakarta Messaging 3.1 makes connection factory and destination definition annotations repeatable, while Jakarta WebSocket 2.1 allows for the registration of endpoints outside of the deployment phase.

But this beta includes more than just Jakarta EE 10 features; two new MicroProfile 6.0 features are also included! MicroProfile JSON Web Token 2.1 includes simplified JWT validation and MicroProfile Metrics 5.0 provides user-defined metric registry scopes.

The Open Liberty includes the following beta features (along with all GA features):

Option to raise Exceptions for undefined Expression Language Identifiers (Jakarta Pages 3.1 and Jakarta Tags 3.0)

Jakarta Pages is a template engine that allows developers to mix various content, such as HTML, XML, and Java code, and translate it into a Jakarta Servlet. Jakarta Standard Tag Library allows for tags to encapsulate common functionality used in many web applications. The Open Liberty pages-3.1 feature is an implementation of both the Jakarta Pages 3.1 and Jakarta Standard Tag Library 3.0 specifications. It includes new features, behavior clarifications, and deprecations from the previous 3.0 version.

The new pages-3.1 feature allows developers to identify undefined Expression Language variables by using a new option, which raises a PropertyNotFoundException and can be set in one of two ways. The errorOnELNotFound attribute is set as a page or tag directive. The <error-on-el-not-found> element is set in the web.xml file.

Previously, imported packages and classes were only available to the scripting environment (i.e. scriptlet tags). However, with version 3.1, they are also available in the Expression Language environment within the page. Default imports (such as jakarta.servlet, jakarta.servlet.jsp, jakarta.servlet.jsp.http) are consistent between both environments. Related changes included internal refactoring of the ScopedAttributeELResolver to create ImportELResolver and the addition of the NotFoundELResolver, which always resolves the requested value and returns null.

Other significant changes include the deprecation of the isThreadSafe directive, the jsp:plugin (including the related jsp:params and jsp:fallback) actions, and any methods which overrode ELResolver.getFeatureDescriptors().

As for Jakarta Tags 3.0, the largest change includes the Tag URI renaming when referencing tag libraries. For example, jakarta.tags.core now replaces the URI when importing the core tag library. However, the implementation kept older URIs for backwards compatibility. The remaining changes related to general clean up of the documentation.

To enable the new Jakarta Server Pages 3.1 and Jakarta Standard Tag Library 3.0 features, add the pages-3.1 feature to your server.xml:


For more information about Jakarta Server Pages and Jakarta Standard Tag Library, refer to the following links:

Register endpoints outside of the deployment phase (Jakarta WebSocket 2.1)

Jakarta WebSocket allows communication via the WebSocket protocol, allowing for full-duplex communication between endpoints. This means that a single, persisted connection is made across the endpoints, allowing both the server and client to continuously and simultaneously push information to each other.

Jakarta WebSocket 2.1 is the latest version of the specification and provides several new features and behavior clarifications aimed at improving WebSocket development. Firstly, when setting up dependencies, developers are likely to notice the API JARs are refactored into client and server JARs. However, both APIs are available as part of the websocket-2.1 feature.

HTTP connection upgrades to the WebSocket protocol can now occur via the ServerContainer.upgradeHttpToWebSocket() method​ rather than IBM’s specific WsWsocServerContainer.doUpgrade() method.

Another change regards the Session#getUserProperties() method. The returned map is now a copy per endpoint instance, per WebSocket session. Additionally, the server session’s user properties are initially populated by the ServerEndpointConfig.getUserProperties() method, so endpoints can retrieve properties set in the ServerEndpointConfig.Configurator.modifyHandshake() method​. This is similar to the client session as the user properties are a shallow copy from the EndpointConfig.getUserProperties() method.

Lastly, there were many clarifications in the spec, such as requiring the Session.getRequestURI() method to return the whole URI. These clarifications can be viewed on the Jakarta WebSocket 2.1 page.

You can enable the Jakarta WebSocket 2.1 feature by using the websocket-2.1 feature in the server.xml file,


For more information about Jakarta WebSocket, refer to the following links:

Improved CDI integration (Jakarta Batch 2.1)

The updates in Jakarta Batch 2.1 primarily focus on improved integration with Context Dependency Injection (CDI). Discovery of Batch artifacts is now standardized via CDI, whereas before it was not fully defined in the specification.

Previously, the default JobOperator was only made available from a static factory method, BatchRuntime.getJobOperator(). With Jakarta Batch 2.1, the default JobOperator is provided as a CDI bean unless one is defined by the user application, if an injectable field is available as defined by:

JobOperator jobOperator;

Previously, the @BatchProperty annotation allowed for injection of String-type values only, but is now expanded to most other primitive types. For example:

@Inject @BatchProperty(name="p1") String p1;

This property can have other types in Jakarta Batch 2.1, including Boolean, Integer, Long, Float, and Double. For example:

@Inject @BatchProperty(name="p1") Integer p1;

The batch-2.1 feature is the implementation of Jakarta Batch 2.1 for use with other Jakarta EE 10 features. It can be activated by including the batch-2.1 feature directly, or by including batchManagement-1.0 along with another Jakarta EE 10 feature. For example:


For more information regarding Jakarta Batch 2.1, refer to the following links:

Connection factory and destination definition annotations are now repeatable (Jakarta Messaging 3.1)

Jakarta Messaging is a set of APIs to standardize message communication between applications, defining how the messages are created, sent, received, and interpreted. Jakarta Messaging 3.1 provides minor changes and enhancements to the specification. Two noteworthy updates are the requirement for Java 11 and making the @JMSConnectionFactoryDefinition and @JMSDestinationDefinition annotations repeatable.

To enable the new Jakarta Messaging 3.1 feature, add the messaging-3.1 feature to your server.xml:


For more information about Jakarta Messaging, refer to the following links:

Jakarta Web Services Metadata incorporated into XML Web Services 4.0

Jakarta XML Web Services 4.0 is a set of APIs that allows applications to deploy SOAP-based web services on the Jakarta EE 10 platform. This set of APIs includes both the XML Web Services 4.0 specification, which now incorporates the Jakarta Web Services Metadata specification, as well as the Jakarta SOAP with Attachments 3.0 specification.

Although the changes introduced in XML Web Services 4.0 are relatively minor, they do include the requirement for Java SE 11, as well as incorporating the Jakarta Web Services Metadata specification into XML Web Services 4.0.

To enable the new Jakarta XML Web Services 4.0 feature, add the xmlWS-4.0 feature to your server.xml:


For more information about Jakarta XML Web Services, refer to the following links:

Simplified JWT Validation (MicroProfile JSON Web Token 2.1)

The MicroProfile JSON Web Token 2.1 specification allows the use of a JWT to authenticate and authorize requests to a service. The specification simplifies managing the validation of the JWT by introducing three new MicroProfile Config properties, along with corresponding mpJwt attributes.


The mp.jwt.verify.token.age property allows you to specify the number of seconds since the JWT token was issued. The iat (issued at) claim must be present in the JWT and the configured number of seconds since iat must not have elapsed. If it has elapsed, then the request is rejected with an Unauthorized (401) response.

The new tokenAge attribute of the mpJwt element overrides the mp.jwt.verify.token.age property.


The mp.jwt.verify.clock.skew property allows you to specify the clock skew in seconds used during the token expiry and age verification. The default value is 0 seconds. In order to use this new property, set a negative value for the clockSkew attribute of the mpJwt element since the mpJwt element already has a default value of 5 minutes for the clockSkew attribute. For example:

<mpJwt id="myMpJwt" clockSkew="-1"/>

If clockSkew is not specified or it has a value greater than 0, then it will override the mp.jwt.verify.clock.skew property.


The mp.jwt.decrypt.key.algorithm property allows you to specify the Key Management Algorithm for decrypting the Content Encryption Key (CEK) when receiving JWE tokens. There is no default value. The alg header parameter must be present in the JWE and must be the same value as the mp.jwt.decrypt.key.algorithm property. If it is not the same value, then the request is rejected with an Unauthorized (401) response. For example:


The new keyManagementKeyAlgorithm attribute of the mpJwt element overrides the mp.jwt.decrypt.key.algorithm property.

You can enable the MicroProfile JSON Web Token 2.1 feature by using the mpJwt-2.1 feature in the server.xml file:


For more information regarding MicroProfile JSON Web Token, refer to the following links:

User-defined metric registry scopes (MicroProfile Metrics 5.0)

The MicroProfile Metrics 5.0 feature is the implementation of the Eclipse MicroProfile Metrics 5.0 release and is compatible to run only with other Jakarta EE 10 features. This latest version of MicroProfile Metrics includes both new functionality and significant changes to the functionality in MicroProfile Metrics 4.0 (i.e. the Open Liberty mpMetrics-4.0 feature).

Before we cover the new, lets first quickly go over the changes to existing functionality. Most notable is the removal of the Meter, ConcurrentGauge and SimpleTimer metrics. A consequence of this change is that the REST.request metric, which was previously backed by a SimpleTimer metric, is now a Timer metric. For the publishing of metrics, only the Prometheus format is now available, and the JSON formatted output has been removed. Additionally, the metrics endpoint for a specific metric registry scope and metric is no longer accessed through a tree hierarchy, but rather through query params. For example, /metrics/base/jvm.uptime is accessed through /metrics?scope=base&metric=jvm.uptime. The /metrics?scope=base endpoint by itself retrieves the metrics for the base metric registry.

New in this release is the introduction of user-defined custom scopes. Prior to this release, there was only the base, vendor and application scopes and only the application scope could be used to register metrics. Now, metrics can be registered to a user-defined metric registry scope in one of the following two ways.

Scope attribute in a the metric annotations

@Counted(name = "myCounter", scope ="customScope")
public void foo(){

Inject a metric registry with a custom scope using the new @RegistryScope annotation

MetricRegistry metricRegistry;
The @RegistryType injection qualifier is still available, but is now deprecated.

Furthermore, the mp.metrics.smallrye.timer.precision and mp.metrics.smallrye.histogram.precision MicroProfile Config properties are introduced in this release. These properties specify the percentile accuracy used by the Timer and Histogram metrics. The valid values are 1-5. The default value is 3. The higher the number, the greater the precision, but the greater the memory usage.

These only the most notable and impactful changes. There are further changes to the API that are not covered in this blog. For a comprehensive list of changes to the MicroProfile Metrics technology, go to the Eclipse MicroProfile Metrics project page.

You can enable the MicroProfile Metrics 5.0 feature by using the mpMetrics-5.0 feature in the server.xml file,


For more information about MicroProfile Metrics, refer to the following links:

Try it now

To try out these features, just update your build tools to pull the Open Liberty All Beta Features package instead of the main release. The beta works with Java SE 19, Java SE 17, Java SE 11, and Java SE 8.

If you’re using Maven, here are the coordinates:


Or for Gradle:

dependencies {
    libertyRuntime group: 'io.openliberty.beta', name: 'openliberty-runtime', version: '[,)'

Or take a look at our Downloads page.

We welcome your feedback

Let us know what you think on our mailing list. If you hit a problem, post a question on StackOverflow. If you hit a bug, please raise an issue.

October 27, 2022 12:00 AM

Migrating to Hibernate 6

by Thorben Janssen at October 18, 2022 12:00 PM

The post Migrating to Hibernate 6 appeared first on Thorben Janssen.

Hibernate 6 has been released for a while, and I see more and more teams migrating their persistence layers or at least preparing for the…

The post Migrating to Hibernate 6 appeared first on Thorben Janssen.

by Thorben Janssen at October 18, 2022 12:00 PM

Create better Criteria queries with Blaze persistence

by Thorben Janssen at October 11, 2022 12:00 PM

The post Create better Criteria queries with Blaze persistence appeared first on Thorben Janssen.

The Blaze Persistence project provides an interesting alternative to JPA’s Criteria API. Both APIs enable you to define queries dynamically at runtime. Most developers use…

The post Create better Criteria queries with Blaze persistence appeared first on Thorben Janssen.

by Thorben Janssen at October 11, 2022 12:00 PM

Survey Says: Confidence Continues to Grow in the Jakarta EE Ecosystem

by Mike Milinkovich at September 26, 2022 01:00 PM

The results of the 2022 Jakarta EE Developer Survey are very telling about the current state of the enterprise Java developer community. They point to increased confidence about Jakarta EE and highlight how far Jakarta EE has grown over the past few years.

Strong Turnout Helps Drive Future of Jakarta EE

The fifth annual survey is one of the longest running and best-respected surveys of its kind in the industry. This year’s turnout was fantastic: From March 9 to May 6, a total of 1,439 developers responded. 

This is great for two reasons. First, obviously, these results help inform the Java ecosystem stakeholders about the requirements, priorities and perceptions of enterprise developer communities. The more people we hear from, the better picture we get of what the community wants and needs. That makes it much easier for us to make sure the work we’re doing is aligned with what our community is looking for. 

The other reason is that it helps us better understand how the cloud native Java world is progressing. By looking at what community members are using and adopting, what their top goals are and what their plans are for adoption, we can better understand not only what we should be working on today, but tomorrow and for the future of Jakarta EE. 

Findings Indicate Growing Adoption and Rising Expectations

Some of the survey’s key findings include:

  • Jakarta EE is the basis for the top frameworks used for building cloud native applications.
  • The top three frameworks for building cloud native applications, respectively, are Spring/Spring Boot, Jakarta EE and MicroProfile, though Spring/Spring Boot lost ground this past year. It’s important to note that Spring/SpringBoot relies on Jakarta EE developments for its operation and is not competitive with Jakarta EE. Both are critical ingredients to the healthy enterprise Java ecosystem. 
  • Jakarta EE 9/9.1 usage increased year-over-year by 5%.
  • Java EE 8, Jakarta EE 8, and Jakarta EE 9/9.1 hit the mainstream with 81% adoption. 
  • While over a third of respondents planned to adopt, or already had adopted Jakarta EE 9/9.1, nearly a fifth of respondents plan to skip Jakarta EE 9/9.1 altogether and adopt Jakarta EE 10 once it becomes available. 
  • Most respondents said they have migrated to Jakarta EE already or planned to do so within the next 6-24 months.
  • The top three community priorities for Jakarta EE are:
    • Native integration with Kubernetes (same as last year)
    • Better support for microservices (same as last year)
    • Faster support from existing Java EE/Jakarta EE or cloud vendors (new this year)

Two of the results, when combined, highlight something interesting:

  • 19% of respondents planned to skip Jakarta EE 9/9.1 and go straight to 10 once it’s available 
  • The new community priority — faster support from existing Java EE/Jakarta EE or cloud vendors — really shows the growing confidence the community has in the ecosystem

After all, you wouldn’t wait for a later version and skip the one that’s already available, unless you were confident that the newer version was not only going to be coming out on a relatively reliable timeline, but that it was going to be an improvement. 

And this growing hunger from the community for faster support really speaks to how far the ecosystem has come. When we release a new version, like when we released Jakarta EE 9, it takes some time for the technology implementers to build the product based on those standards or specifications. The community is becoming more vocal in requesting those implementers to be more agile and quickly pick up the new versions. That’s definitely an indication that developer demand for Jakarta EE products is growing in a healthy way. 

Learn More

If you’d like to learn more about the project, there are several Jakarta EE mailing lists to sign up for. You can also join the conversation on Slack. And if you want to get involved, start by choosing a project, sign up for its mailing list and start communicating with the team.

by Mike Milinkovich at September 26, 2022 01:00 PM

Jakarta EE 10 Brings Java Development Into the Modern Cloud Native Era

by Mike Milinkovich at September 22, 2022 04:00 PM

Jakarta EE, a Working Group hosted by the Eclipse Foundation, released Jakarta EE 10 today. 

This achievement was only possible because of a global community of contributors. Congratulations and thank you to everyone who played a part in this release. 

There are many new and innovative features added by the Jakarta EE community.

Jakarta EE 10 Enables Modern, Lightweight Java Applications and Microservices

Let’s start with some of the key updates in Jakarta EE 10 — updates that plant Jakarta EE firmly in the modern era of open source microservices and containers. 

Most prominently, Jakarta EE 10 includes a new profile specification: Jakarta EE Core Profile. The Core Profile includes a subset of Jakarta EE specifications that target the smaller, lightweight runtimes needed for microservices development. This is the first new Profile added to the enterprise Java specifications in over a decade.

In addition, new functionality has been added to more than 20 component specifications. For example:

Jakarta EE 10 also broadens support for annotations so it’s easier to build modularized applications and there’s better integration across component APIs.

Finally, I want to point out that Jakarta EE 10 gives enterprises the flexibility to leverage Java in the way that’s best for their organization. They can:

  • Develop and deploy Jakarta EE 10 applications on Java SE 11 as well as Java SE 17, the most current long-term support (LTS) release of Java SE
  • Take advantage of new features, including the modular system, that were introduced in Java SE 9 and supported in Java SE 11

The Jakarta EE Gamble Is Paying Off

This is all great news for Jakarta EE. But to understand how significant this release is, we need to go back to the Java EE days.

Java EE was the bedrock of application development for the Fortune 1000 for 20 years before it moved to the Eclipse Foundation as Jakarta EE. But the first Jakarta EE releases didn’t add new functionality. Then, Jakarta EE 9 introduced a major breaking change: the move to the jakarta.* namespace.

It’s hard to overstate what a gamble that was. Java EE had been basically backwards-compatible for more than two decades. We asked enterprises to change the fundamentals of applications they’d been relying on for a long time. We asked the enterprise Java ecosystem to re-align their products and opens source projects on a new namespace. Oftentimes, when you try to make such a radical change, your ecosystem says no, it’s too much work. And quite a few people thought the Jakarta EE gamble could fail for exactly that reason. 

But it didn’t. IBM, Red Hat, Payara, Spring, the Apache Tomcat and TomEE projects, and Eclipse Jetty, to name a few, all moved to the new namespace with us. 

Now, with new support for modern microservices architectures and containers, Jakarta EE 10 paves the way for Jakarta EE to drive the innovative, multi-vendor standards needed for the future of our industry. 

Get Involved in the Future of Jakarta EE

The momentum around Jakarta EE 10 is well underway. Eclipse GlassFish has released a compatible implementation, and other enterprises and project teams — including Fujitsu, IBM, Oracle, Payara, Red Hat and Tomitribe — are already working towards certifying Jakarta EE 10 compatible products 

Jakarta EE has an exciting future ahead, and we want everyone to participate and contribute. To learn more, connect with the global community. If enterprise Java is important to your business strategy, join the Jakarta EE Working Group. Learn more about the benefits and advantages of membership here.

by Mike Milinkovich at September 22, 2022 04:00 PM

Jakarta EE 10 has Landed!

by javaeeguardian at September 22, 2022 03:48 PM

The Jakarta EE Ambassadors are thrilled to see Jakarta EE 10 being released! This is a milestone release that bears great significance to the Java ecosystem. Jakarta EE 8 and Jakarta EE 9.x were important releases in their own right in the process of transitioning Java EE to a truly open environment in the Eclipse Foundation. However, these releases did not deliver new features. Jakarta EE 10 changes all that and begins the vital process of delivering long pending new features into the ecosystem at a regular cadence.

There are quite a few changes that were delivered – here are some key themes and highlights:

  • CDI Alignment
    • @Asynchronous in Concurrency
    • Better CDI support in Batch
  • Java SE Alignment
    • Support for Java SE 11, Java SE 17
    • CompletionStage, ForkJoinPool, parallel streams in Concurrency
    • Bootstrap APIs for REST
  • Closing standardization gaps
    • OpenID Connect support in Security, @ManagedExecutorDefinition, UUID as entity keys, more SQL support in Persistence queries, multipart/form-data support in REST, @ClientWindowScoped in Faces, pure Java Faces views
    • CDI Lite/Core Profile to enable next generation cloud native runtimes – MicroProfile will likely align with CDI Lite/Jakarta EE Core
  • Deprecation/removal
    • @Context annotation in REST, EJB Entity Beans, embeddable EJB container, deprecated Servlet/Faces/CDI features

While there are many features that we identified in our Jakarta EE 10 Contribution Guide that did not make it yet, this is still a very solid release that everyone in the Java ecosystem will benefit from, including Spring, MicroProfile and Quarkus. You can see here what was delivered, what’s on the way and what gaps still remain. You can try Jakarta EE 10 out now using compatible implementations like GlassFish, Payara, WildFly and Open Liberty. Jakarta EE 10 is proof in the pudding that the community, including major stakeholders, has not only made it through the transition to the Eclipse Foundation but now is beginning to thrive once again.

Many Ambassadors helped make this release a reality such as Arjan Tijms, Werner Keil, Markus Karg, Otavio Santana, Ondro Mihalyi and many more. The Ambassadors will now focus on enabling the community to evangelize Jakarta EE 10 including speaking, blogging, trying out implementations, and advocating for real world adoption. We will also work to enable the community to continue to contribute to Jakarta EE by producing an EE 11 Contribution Guide in the coming months. Please stay tuned and join us.

Jakarta EE is truly moving forward – the next phase of the platform’s evolution is here!

by javaeeguardian at September 22, 2022 03:48 PM

Jersey 2.37, 3.0.8, and 3.1.0-M8

by Jan at September 08, 2022 08:01 AM

Jersey project continues to develop three branches, Java EE / Jakarta EE 8 – Jersey 2.x, Jakarta EE 9 – 3.0.x, and the new Jakarta EE 10 – 3.1.x. Recently, Jersey 2.37, and 3.0.8 were released. Jersey 3.1.0-M8 is still … Continue reading

by Jan at September 08, 2022 08:01 AM

Jakarta EE 10: The countdown can start!

by Tanja Obradovic at September 06, 2022 05:37 PM


At this point it is a question of days, not weeks! The expectation is that the Release Reviews will be completed the week of September 12th, 2022. Even though it took us longer than anticipated, the release review ballots are either completed or in progress.

Quick reminder of the Jakarta EE Specification Process we are using for releasing the specifications.

Compatible Product used WildFly 27.0.0.Alpha1 (SE 17) for ratification of the Jakarta EE Core Profile 10, and we already have another certification for Payara Server Community 6.2022.1.Alpha3! For the ratification of Jakarta EE Web Profile and Platform it was Eclipse GlassFish 7.0 M8. 

by Tanja Obradovic at September 06, 2022 05:37 PM

Java Reflections unit-testing

by Vladimir Bychkov at July 13, 2022 09:06 PM

How make java code with reflections more stable? Unit tests can help with this problem. This article introduces annotations @CheckConstructor, @CheckField, @CheckMethod to create so unit tests automatically

by Vladimir Bychkov at July 13, 2022 09:06 PM

The Power of Enum – Take advantage of it to make your code more readable and efficient

by otaviojava at July 06, 2022 06:51 AM

Like any other language, Java has the enum feature that allows us to enumerate items. It is helpful to list delimited items in your code, such as the seasons. And we can go beyond it with Java! It permits clean code design. Indeed, we can apply several patterns such as VO from DDD, Singleton, and […]

by otaviojava at July 06, 2022 06:51 AM

Java EE - Jakarta EE Initializr

May 05, 2022 02:23 PM

Getting started with Jakarta EE just became even easier!

Get started

Hot new Update!

Moved from the Apache 2 license to the Eclipse Public License v2 for the newest version of the archetype as described below.
As a start for a possible collaboration with the Eclipse start project.

New Archetype with JakartaEE 9

JakartaEE 9 + Payara 5.2022.2 + MicroProfile 4.1 running on Java 17

  • And the docker image is also ready for x86_64 (amd64) AND aarch64 (arm64/v8) architectures!

May 05, 2022 02:23 PM

FOSDEM 2022 Conference Report

by Reza Rahman at February 21, 2022 12:24 AM

FOSDEM took place February 5-6. The European based event is one of the most significant gatherings worldwide focused on all things Open Source. Named the “Friends of OpenJDK”, in recent years the event has added a devroom/track dedicated to Java. The effort is lead by my friend and former colleague Geertjan Wielenga. Due to the pandemic, the 2022 event was virtual once again. I delivered a couple of talks on Jakarta EE as well as Diversity & Inclusion.

Fundamentals of Diversity & Inclusion for Technologists

I opened the second day of the conference with my newest talk titled “Fundamentals of Diversity and Inclusion for Technologists”. I believe this is an overdue and critically important subject. I am very grateful to FOSDEM for accepting the talk. The reality for our industry remains that many people either have not yet started or are at the very beginning of their Diversity & Inclusion journey. This talk aims to start the conversation in earnest by explaining the basics. Concepts covered include unconscious bias, privilege, equity, allyship, covering and microaggressions. I punctuate the topic with experiences from my own life and examples relevant to technologists. The slides for the talk are available on SpeakerDeck. The video for the talk is now posted on YouTube.

Jakarta EE – Present and Future

Later the same day, I delivered my fairly popular talk – “Jakarta EE – Present and Future”. The talk is essentially a state of the union for Jakarta EE. It covers a little bit of history, context, Jakarta EE 8, Jakarta EE 9/9.1 as well as what’s ahead for Jakarta EE 10. One key component of the talk is the importance and ways of direct developer contributions into Jakarta EE, if needed with help from the Jakarta EE Ambassadors. Jakarta EE 10 and the Jakarta Core Profile should bring an important set of changes including to CDI, Jakarta REST, Concurrency, Security, Faces, Batch and Configuration. The slides for the talk are available on SpeakerDeck. The video for the talk is now posted on YouTube.

I am very happy to have had the opportunity to speak at FOSDEM. I hope to contribute again in the future.

by Reza Rahman at February 21, 2022 12:24 AM

Making Readable Code With Dependency Injection and Jakarta CDI

by otaviojava at January 18, 2022 03:53 PM

Learn more about dependency injection with Jakarta CDI and enhance the effectiveness and readability of your code. Link:

by otaviojava at January 18, 2022 03:53 PM

Infinispan Apache Log4j 2 CVE-2021-44228 vulnerability

December 12, 2021 10:00 PM

Infinispan 10+ uses Log4j version 2.0+ and can be affected by vulnerability CVE-2021-44228, which has a 10.0 CVSS score. The first fixed Log4j version is 2.15.0.
So, until official patch is coming, - you can update used logger version to the latest in few simple steps


cd /opt/infinispan-server-10.1.8.Final/lib/

rm log4j-*.jar
cp ~/Downloads/apache-log4j-2.15.0-bin/log4j-api-2.15.0.jar ./
cp ~/Downloads/apache-log4j-2.15.0-bin/log4j-core-2.15.0.jar ./
cp ~/Downloads/apache-log4j-2.15.0-bin/log4j-jul-2.15.0.jar ./
cp ~/Downloads/apache-log4j-2.15.0-bin/log4j-slf4j-impl-2.15.0.jar ./

Please, note - patch above is not official, but according to initial tests it works with no issues

December 12, 2021 10:00 PM

JPA query methods: influence on performance

by Vladimir Bychkov at November 18, 2021 07:22 AM

Specification JPA 2.2/Jakarta JPA 3.0 provides for several methods to select data from database. In this article we research how these methods affect on performance

by Vladimir Bychkov at November 18, 2021 07:22 AM

Eclipse Jetty Servlet Survey

by jesse at October 27, 2021 01:25 PM

This short 5-minute survey is being presented to the Eclipse Jetty user community to validate conjecture the Jetty developers have for how users will leverage JakartaEE servlets and the Jetty project. We have some features we are gauging interest in

by jesse at October 27, 2021 01:25 PM

Custom Identity Store with Jakarta Security in TomEE

by Jean-Louis Monteiro at September 30, 2021 11:42 AM

In the previous post, we saw how to use the built-in ‘tomcat-users.xml’ identity store with Apache TomEE. While this identity store is inherited from Tomcat and integrated into Jakarta Security implementation in TomEE, this is usually good for development or simple deployments, but may appear too simple or restrictive for production environments. 

This blog will focus on how to implement your own identity store. TomEE can use LDAP or JDBC identity stores out of the box. We will try them out next time.

Let’s say you have your own file store or your own data store like an in-memory data grid, then you will need to implement your own identity store.

What is an identity store?

An identity store is a database or a directory (store) of identity information about a population of users that includes an application’s callers.

In essence, an identity store contains all information such as caller name, groups or roles, and required information to validate a caller’s credentials.

How to implement my own identity store?

This is actually fairly simple with Jakarta Security. The only thing you need to do is create an implementation of ``. All methods in the interface have default implementations. So you only have to implement what you need.

public interface IdentityStore {

   default CredentialValidationResult validate(Credential credential) {

   default Set getCallerGroups(CredentialValidationResult validationResult) {

   default int priority() {

   default Set validationTypes() {

   enum ValidationType {

By default, an identity store is used for both validating user credentials and providing groups/roles for the authenticated user. Depending on what #validationTypes() will return, you will have to implement #validate(…) and/or #getCallerGroups(…)

#getCallerGroups(…) will receive the result of #valide(…). Let’s look at a very simple example:

public class TestIdentityStore implements IdentityStore {

   public CredentialValidationResult validate(Credential credential) {

       if (!(credential instanceof UsernamePasswordCredential)) {
           return INVALID_RESULT;

       final UsernamePasswordCredential usernamePasswordCredential = (UsernamePasswordCredential) credential;
       if (usernamePasswordCredential.compareTo("jon", "doe")) {
           return new CredentialValidationResult("jon", new HashSet<>(asList("foo", "bar")));

       if (usernamePasswordCredential.compareTo("iron", "man")) {
           return new CredentialValidationResult("iron", new HashSet<>(Collections.singletonList("avengers")));

       return INVALID_RESULT;


In this simple example, the identity store is hardcoded. Basically, it knows only 2 users, one of them has some roles, while the other has another set of roles.

You can easily extend this example and query a local file, or an in-memory data grid if you need. Or use JPA to access your relational database.

IMPORTANT: for TomEE to pick it up and use it in your application, the identity store must be a CDI bean.

The complete and runnable example is available under

The post Custom Identity Store with Jakarta Security in TomEE appeared first on Tomitribe.

by Jean-Louis Monteiro at September 30, 2021 11:42 AM

Book Review: Practical Cloud-Native Java Development with MicroProfile

September 24, 2021 12:00 AM

Practical Cloud-Native Java Development with MicroProfile cover

General information

  • Pages: 403
  • Published by: Packt
  • Release date: Aug 2021

Disclaimer: I received this book as a collaboration with Packt and one of the authors (Thanks Emily!)

A book about Microservices for the Java Enterprise-shops

Year after year many enterprise companies are struggling to embrace Cloud Native practices that we tend to denominate as Microservices, however Microservices is a metapattern that needs to follow a well defined approach, like:

  • (We aim for) reactive systems
  • (Hence we need a methodology like) 12 Cloud Native factors
  • (Implementing) well-known design patterns
  • (Dividing the system by using) Domain Driven Design
  • (Implementing microservices via) Microservices chassis and/or service mesh
  • (Achieving deployments by) Containers orchestration

Many of these concepts require a considerable amount of context, but some books, tutorials, conferences and YouTube videos tend to focus on specific niche information, making difficult to have a "cold start" in the microservices space if you have been developing regular/monolithic software. For me, that's the best thing about this book, it provides a holistic view to understand microservices with Java and MicroProfile for "cold starter developers".

About the book

Using a software architect perspective, MicroProfile could be defined as a set of specifications (APIs) that many microservices chassis implement in order to solve common microservices problems through patterns, lessons learned from well known Java libraries, and proposals for collaboration between Java Enterprise vendors.

Subsequently if you think that it sounds a lot like Java EE, that's right, it's the same spirit but on the microservices space with participation for many vendors, including vendors from the Java EE space -e.g. Red Hat, IBM, Apache, Payara-.

The main value of this book is the willingness to go beyond the APIs, providing four structured sections that have different writing styles, for instance:

  1. Section 1: Cloud Native Applications - Written as a didactical resource to learn fundamentals of distributed systems with Cloud Native approach
  2. Section 2: MicroProfile Deep Dive - Written as a reference book with code snippets to understand the motivation, functionality and specific details in MicroProfile APIs and the relation between these APIs and common Microservices patterns -e.g. Remote procedure invocation, Health Check APIs, Externalized configuration-
  3. Section 3: End-to-End Project Using MicroProfile - Written as a narrative workshop with source code already available, to understand the development and deployment process of Cloud Native applications with MicroProfile
  4. Section 4: The standalone specifications - Written as a reference book with code snippets, it describes the development of newer specs that could be included in the future under MicroProfile's umbrella

First section

This was by far my favorite section. This section presents a well-balanced overview about Cloud Native practices like:

  • Cloud Native definition
  • The role of microservices and the differences with monoliths and FaaS
  • Data consistency with event sourcing
  • Best practices
  • The role of MicroProfile

I enjoyed this section because my current role is to coach or act as a software architect at different companies, hence this is good material to explain the whole panorama to my coworkers and/or use this book as a quick reference.

My only concern with this section is about the final chapter, this chapter presents an application called IBM Stock Trader that (as you probably guess) IBM uses to demonstrate these concepts using MicroProfile with OpenLiberty. The chapter by itself presents an application that combines data sources, front/ends, Kubernetes; however the application would be useful only on Section 3 (at least that was my perception). Hence you will be going back to this section once you're executing the workshop.

Second section

This section divides the MicroProfile APIs in three levels, the division actually makes a lot of sense but was evident to me only during this review:

  1. The base APIs to create microservices (JAX-RS, CDI, JSON-P, JSON-B, Rest Client)
  2. Enhancing microservices (Config, Fault Tolerance, OpenAPI, JWT)
  3. Observing microservices (Health, Metrics, Tracing)

Additionally, section also describes the need for Docker and Kubernetes and how other common approaches -e.g. Service mesh- overlap with Microservice Chassis functionality.

Currently I'm a MicroProfile user, hence I knew most of the APIs, however I liked the actual description of the pattern/need that motivated the inclusion of the APIs, and the description could be useful for newcomers, along with the code snippets also available on GitHub.

If you're a Java/Jakarta EE developer you will find the CDI section a little bit superficial, indeed CDI by itself deserves a whole book/fascicle but this chapter gives the basics to start the development process.

Third section

This section switches the writing style to a workshop style. The first chapter is entirely focused on how to compile the sample microservices, how to fulfill the technical requirements and which MicroProfile APIs are used on every microservice.

You must notice that this is not a Java programming workshop, it's a Cloud Native workshop with ready to deploy microservices, hence the step by step guide is about compilation with Maven, Docker containers, scaling with Kubernetes, operators in Openshift, etc.

You could explore and change the source code if you wish, but the section is written in a "descriptive" way assuming the samples existence.

Fourth section

This section is pretty similar to the second section in the reference book style, hence it also describes the pattern/need that motivated the discussion of the API and code snippets. The main focus of this section is GraphQL, Reactive Approaches and distributed transactions with LRA.

This section will probably change in future editions of the book because at the time of publishing the Cloud Native Container Foundation revealed that some initiatives about observability will be integrated in the OpenTelemetry project and MicroProfile it's discussing their future approach.

Things that could be improved

As any review this is the most difficult section to write, but I think that a second edition should:

  • Extend the CDI section due its foundational status
  • Switch the order of the Stock Tracer presentation
  • Extend the data consistency discussión -e.g. CQRS, Event Sourcing-, hopefully with advances from LRA

The last item is mostly a wish since I'm always in the need for better ways to integrate this common practices with buses like Kafka or Camel using MicroProfile. I know that some implementations -e.g. Helidon, Quarkus- already have extensions for Kafka or Camel, but the data consistency is an entire discussion about patterns, tools and best practices.

Who should read this book?

  • Java developers with strong SE foundations and familiarity with the enterprise space (Spring/Java EE)

September 24, 2021 12:00 AM

GlassFish & Payara Auto-Clustering: Running Jakarta EE Highly-Available Applications in the Cloud

by Tetiana Fydorenchyk at September 21, 2021 11:19 AM

Explore automatic clusterization of Glassfish and Payara in one click with no manual configurations required. The main advantage of this solution is in automatic interconnection of multiple application server instances upon the application topology change, which implements the commonly used clustering configuration. Find out how to get auto-clustered highly available Java servers up and running in the cloud in a matter of minutes.

by Tetiana Fydorenchyk at September 21, 2021 11:19 AM

#156 Bash, Apple and EJB, TomEE, Geronimo and Jakarta EE

by David Blevins at September 14, 2021 02:07 PM

New podcast episode with Adam Bien & David Blevins.  Apple and EJB, @ApacheTomEE, @tomitribe, @JakartaEE, the benefits of code generation with bash, and over-engineering”–the 156th

The post #156 Bash, Apple and EJB, TomEE, Geronimo and Jakarta EE appeared first on Tomitribe.

by David Blevins at September 14, 2021 02:07 PM

Tomcat and TomEE Clustering Automation

by Tetiana Fydorenchyk at August 18, 2021 11:29 AM

Explore the tips on how to install automatically clustered Tomcat and TomEE servers to get a highly available solution that can efficiently serve a large number of users, process a lot of traffic, and be reliable.
Tomcat TomEE Automatic Clustering

by Tetiana Fydorenchyk at August 18, 2021 11:29 AM

Jakarta Community Acceptance Testing (JCAT)

by javaeeguardian at July 28, 2021 05:41 AM

Today the Jakarta EE Ambassadors are announcing the start of the Jakarta EE Community Acceptance (JCAT) Testing initiative. The purpose of this initiative is to test Jakarta EE 9/9.1 implementations testing using your code and/or applications. Although Jakarta EE is extensively tested by the TCK, container specific tests, and QA, the purpose of JCAT is for developers to test the implementations.

Jakarta EE 9/9.1 did not introduce any new features. In Jakarta EE 9 the APIs changed from javax to jakarta. Jakarta EE 9.1 raised the supported floor to Java 11 for compatible implementations. So what are we testing?

  • Testing individual spec implementations standalone with the new namespace. 
  • Deploying existing Java EE/Jakarta EE applications to EE 9/9.1.
  • Converting Java EE/Jakarta EE applications to the new namespace.
  • Running applications on Java 11 (Jakarta EE 9.1)

Participating in this initiative is easy:

  1. Download a Jakarta EE implementation:
    1. Java 8 / Jakarta EE 9 Containers
    2. Java 11+ / Jakarta EE 9.1 Containers
  2. Deploy code:
    1. Port or run your existing Jakarta EE application
    2. Test out a feature using a starter template

To join this initiative, please take a moment to fill-out the form:

 Sign-up Form 

To submit results or feedback on your experiences with Jakarta EE 9/9.1:

  Jakarta EE 9 / 9.1 Feedback Form


Start Date: July 28, 2021

End Date: December 31st, 2021

by javaeeguardian at July 28, 2021 05:41 AM

Your Voice Matters: Take the Jakarta EE Developer Survey

by dmitrykornilov at April 17, 2021 11:36 AM

The Jakarta EE Developer Survey is in its fourth year and is the industry’s largest open source developer survey. It’s open until April 30, 2021. I am encouraging you to add your voice. Why should you do it? Because Jakarta EE Working Group needs your feedback. We need to know the challenges you facing and suggestions you have about how to make Jakarta EE better.

Last year’s edition surveyed developers to gain on-the-ground understanding and insights into how Jakarta solutions are being built, as well as identifying developers’ top choices for architectures, technologies, and tools. The 2021 Jakarta EE Developer Survey is your chance to influence the direction of the Jakarta EE Working Group’s approach to cloud native enterprise Java.

The results from the 2021 survey will give software vendors, service providers, enterprises, and individual developers in the Jakarta ecosystem updated information about Jakarta solutions and service development trends and what they mean for their strategies and businesses. Additionally, the survey results also help the Jakarta community at the Eclipse Foundation better understand the top industry focus areas and priorities for future project releases.

A full report from based on the survey results will be made available to all participants.

The survey takes less than 10 minutes to complete. We look forward to your input. Take the survey now!

by dmitrykornilov at April 17, 2021 11:36 AM

Less is More? Evolving the Servlet API!

by gregw at April 13, 2021 06:19 AM

With the release of the Servlet API 5.0 as part of Eclipse Jakarta EE 9.0 the standardization process has completed its move from the now-defunct Java Community Process (JCP) to being fully open source at the Eclipse Foundation, including the

by gregw at April 13, 2021 06:19 AM

Undertow AJP balancer. UT005028: Proxy request failed: java.nio.BufferOverflowException

April 02, 2021 09:00 PM

Wildfly provides great out of the box load balancing support by Undertow and modcluster subsystems
Unfortunately, in case HTTP headers size is huge enough (close to 16K), which is so actual in JWT era - pity error happened:

ERROR [io.undertow.proxy] (default I/O-10) UT005028: Proxy request to /ee-jax-rs-examples/clusterdemo/serverinfo failed: java.nio.BufferOverflowException
 at io.undertow.server.handlers.proxy.ProxyHandler$HTTPTrailerChannelListener.handleEvent(
 at io.undertow.server.handlers.proxy.ProxyHandler$ProxyAction$1.completed(
 at io.undertow.server.handlers.proxy.ProxyHandler$ProxyAction$1.completed(
 at io.undertow.client.ajp.AjpClientExchange.invokeReadReadyCallback(
 at io.undertow.client.ajp.AjpClientConnection.initiateRequest(
 at io.undertow.client.ajp.AjpClientConnection.sendRequest(
 at io.undertow.server.handlers.proxy.ProxyHandler$
 at io.undertow.util.SameThreadExecutor.execute(
 at io.undertow.server.HttpServerExchange.dispatch(
Caused by: java.nio.BufferOverflowException
 at java.nio.Buffer.nextPutIndex(
 at java.nio.DirectByteBuffer.put(
 at io.undertow.protocols.ajp.AjpUtils.putString(
 at io.undertow.protocols.ajp.AjpClientRequestClientStreamSinkChannel.createFrameHeaderImpl(
 at io.undertow.protocols.ajp.AjpClientRequestClientStreamSinkChannel.generateSendFrameHeader(
 at io.undertow.protocols.ajp.AjpClientFramePriority.insertFrame(
 at io.undertow.protocols.ajp.AjpClientFramePriority.insertFrame(
 at io.undertow.server.protocol.framed.AbstractFramedChannel.flushSenders(
 at io.undertow.server.protocol.framed.AbstractFramedChannel.flush(
 at io.undertow.server.protocol.framed.AbstractFramedChannel.queueFrame(
 at io.undertow.server.protocol.framed.AbstractFramedStreamSinkChannel.queueFinalFrame(
 at io.undertow.server.protocol.framed.AbstractFramedStreamSinkChannel.shutdownWrites(
 at io.undertow.channels.DetachableStreamSinkChannel.shutdownWrites(
 at io.undertow.server.handlers.proxy.ProxyHandler$HTTPTrailerChannelListener.handleEvent(

The same request directly to backend server works well. Tried to play with ajp-listener and mod-cluster filter "max-*" parameters, but have no luck.

Possible solution here is switch protocol from AJP to HTTP which can be bit less effective, but works well with big headers:

/profile=full-ha/subsystem=modcluster/proxy=default:write-attribute(name=listener, value=default)

April 02, 2021 09:00 PM

Oracle Joins MicroProfile Working Group

by dmitrykornilov at January 08, 2021 06:02 PM

I am very pleased to announce that since the beginning of 2021 Oracle is officially a part of MicroProfile Working Group. 

In Oracle we believe in standards and supporting them in our products. Standards are born in blood, toil, tears, and sweat. Standards are a result of collaboration of experts, vendors, customers and users. Standards bring the advantages of portability between different implementations that make standard-based solutions vendor-neutral.

We created Java EE which was the first enterprise Java standard. We opened it and moved it to the Eclipse Foundation to make its development truly open source and vendor neutral. Now we are joining MicroProfile which in the last few years has become a leading standard for cloud-native solutions.

We’ve been supporting MicroProfile for years before officially joining the Working Group. We created project Helidon which has supported MicroProfile APIs since MicroProfile version 1.1. Contributing to the evolution and supporting new versions of MicroProfile is one of our strategic goals.

I like the community driven and enjoyable approach of creating cloud-native APIs invented by MicroProfile. I believe that our collaboration will be effective and together we will push MicroProfile forward to a higher level.

by dmitrykornilov at January 08, 2021 06:02 PM

An introduction to MicroProfile GraphQL

by Jean-François James at November 14, 2020 05:05 PM

If you’re interested in MicroProfile and APIs, please checkout my presentation Boost your APIs with GraphQL. I did it at EclipseCon 2020. Thanks to the organizers for the invitation! The slide deck is on Slideshare. I’ve tried to be high-level and explain how GraphQL differentiates from REST and how easy it is to implement a […]

by Jean-François James at November 14, 2020 05:05 PM

General considerations on updating Enterprise Java projects from Java 8 to Java 11

September 23, 2020 12:00 AM


The purpose of this article is to consolidate all difficulties and solutions that I've encountered while updating Java EE projects from Java 8 to Java 11 (and beyond). It's a known fact that Java 11 has a lot of new characteristics that are revolutionizing how Java is used to create applications, despite being problematic under certain conditions.

This article is focused on Java/Jakarta EE but it could be used as basis for other enterprise Java frameworks and libraries migrations.

Is it possible to update Java EE/MicroProfile projects from Java 8 to Java 11?

Yes, absolutely. My team has been able to bump at least two mature enterprise applications with more than three years in development, being:

A Management Information System (MIS)

Nabenik MIS

  • Time for migration: 1 week
  • Modules: 9 EJB, 1 WAR, 1 EAR
  • Classes: 671 and counting
  • Code lines: 39480
  • Project's beginning: 2014
  • Original platform: Java 7, Wildfly 8, Java EE 7
  • Current platform: Java 11, Wildfly 17, Jakarta EE 8, MicroProfile 3.0
  • Web client: Angular

Mobile POS and Geo-fence

Medmigo REP

  • Time for migration: 3 week
  • Modules: 5 WAR/MicroServices
  • Classes: 348 and counting
  • Code lines: 17160
  • Project's beginning: 2017
  • Original platform: Java 8, Glassfish 4, Java EE 7
  • Current platform: Java 11, Payara (Micro) 5, Jakarta EE 8, MicroProfile 3.2
  • Web client: Angular

Why should I ever consider migrating to Java 11?

As everything in IT the answer is "It depends . . .". However there are a couple of good reasons to do it:

  1. Reduce attack surface by updating project dependencies proactively
  2. Reduce technical debt and most importantly, prepare your project for the new and dynamic Java world
  3. Take advantage of performance improvements on new JVM versions
  4. Take advantage from improvements of Java as programming language
  5. Sleep better by having a more secure, efficient and quality product

Why Java updates from Java 8 to Java 11 are considered difficult?

From my experience with many teams, because of this:

Changes in Java release cadence

Java Release Cadence

Currently, there are two big branches in JVMs release model:

  • Java LTS: With a fixed lifetime (3 years) for long term support, being Java 11 the latest one
  • Java current: A fast-paced Java version that is available every 6 months over a predictable calendar, being Java 15 the latest (at least at the time of publishing for this article)

The rationale behind this decision is that Java needed dynamism in providing new characteristics to the language, API and JVM, which I really agree.

Nevertheless, it is a know fact that most enterprise frameworks seek and use Java for stability. Consequently, most of these frameworks target Java 11 as "certified" Java Virtual Machine for deployments.

Usage of internal APIs

Java 9

Errata: I fixed and simplified this section following an interesting discussion on reddit :)

Java 9 introduced changes in internal classes that weren't meant for usage outside JVM, preventing/breaking the functionality of popular libraries that made use of these internals -e.g. Hibernate, ASM, Hazelcast- to gain performance.

Hence to avoid it, internal APIs in JDK 9 are inaccessible at compile time (but accesible with --add-exports), remaining accessible if they were in JDK 8 but in a future release they will become inaccessible, in the long run this change will reduce the costs borne by the maintainers of the JDK itself and by the maintainers of libraries and applications that, knowingly or not, make use of these internal APIs.

Finally, during the introduction of JEP-260 internal APIs were classified as critical and non-critical, consequently critical internal APIs for which replacements are introduced in JDK 9 are deprecated in JDK 9 and will be either encapsulated or removed in a future release.

However, you are inside the danger zone if:

  1. Your project compiles against dependencies pre-Java 9 depending on critical internals
  2. You bundle dependencies pre-Java 9 depending on critical internals
  3. You run your applications over a runtime -e.g. Application Servers- that include pre Java 9 transitive dependencies

Any of these situations means that your application has a probability of not being compatible with JVMs above Java 8. At least not without updating your dependencies, which also could uncover breaking changes in library APIs creating mandatory refactors.

Removal of CORBA and Java EE modules from OpenJDK


Also during Java 9 release, many Java EE and CORBA modules were marked as deprecated, being effectively removed at Java 11, specifically:

  • (JAX-WS, plus the related technologies SAAJ and Web Services Metadata)
  • java.xml.bind (JAXB)
  • java.activation (JAF)
  • (Common Annotations)
  • java.corba (CORBA)
  • java.transaction (JTA)
  • (Aggregator module for the six modules above)
  • (Tools for JAX-WS)
  • jdk.xml.bind (Tools for JAXB)

As JEP-320 states, many of these modules were included in Java 6 as a convenience to generate/support SOAP Web Services. But these modules eventually took off as independent projects already available at Maven Central. Therefore it is necessary to include these as dependencies if our project implements services with JAX-WS and/or depends on any library/utility that was included previously.

IDEs and application servers


In the same way as libraries, Java IDEs had to catch-up with the introduction of Java 9 at least in three levels:

  1. IDEs as Java programs should be compatible with Java Modules
  2. IDEs should support new Java versions as programming language -i.e. Incremental compilation, linting, text analysis, modules-
  3. IDEs are also basis for an ecosystem of plugins that are developed independently. Hence if plugins have any transitive dependency with issues over JPMS, these also have to be updated

Overall, none of the Java IDEs guaranteed that plugins will work in JVMs above Java 8. Therefore you could possibly run your IDE over Java 11 but a legacy/deprecated plugin could prevent you to run your application.

How do I update?

You must notice that Java 9 launched three years ago, hence the situations previously described are mostly covered. However you should do the following verifications and actions to prevent failures in the process:

  1. Verify server compatibility
  2. Verify if you need a specific JVM due support contracts and conditions
  3. Configure your development environment to support multiple JVMs during the migration process
  4. Verify your IDE compatibility and update
  5. Update Maven and Maven projects
  6. Update dependencies
  7. Include Java/Jakarta EE dependencies
  8. Execute multiple JVMs in production

Verify server compatibility


Mike Luikides from O'Reilly affirms that there are two types of programmers. In one hand we have the low level programmers that create tools as libraries or frameworks, and on the other hand we have developers that use these tools to create experience, products and services.

Java Enterprise is mostly on the second hand, the "productive world" resting in giant's shoulders. That's why you should check first if your runtime or framework already has a version compatible with Java 11, and also if you have the time/decision power to proceed with an update. If not, any other action from this point is useless.

The good news is that most of the popular servers in enterprise Java world are already compatible, like:

If you happen to depend on non compatible runtimes, this is where the road ends unless you support the maintainer to update it.

Verify if you need an specific JVM


On a non-technical side, under support contract conditions you could be obligated to use an specific JVM version.

OpenJDK by itself is an open source project receiving contributions from many companies (being Oracle the most active contributor), but nothing prevents any other company to compile, pack and TCK other JVM distribution as demonstrated by Amazon Correto, Azul Zulu, Liberica JDK, etc.

In short, there is software that technically could run over any JVM distribution and version, but the support contract will ask you for a particular version. For instance:

Configure your development environment to support multiple JDKs

Since the jump from Java 8 to Java 11 is mostly an experimentation process, it is a good idea to install multiple JVMs on the development computer, being SDKMan and jEnv the common options:



SDKMan is available for Unix-Like environments (Linux, Mac OS, Cygwin, BSD) and as the name suggests, acts as a Java tools package manager.

It helps to install and manage JVM ecosystem tools -e.g. Maven, Gradle, Leiningen- and also multiple JDK installations from different providers.



Also available for Unix-Like environments (Linux, Mac OS, Cygwin, BSD), jEnv is basically a script to manage and switch multiple JVM installations per system, user and shell.

If you happen to install JDKs from different sources -e.g Homebrew, Linux Repo, Oracle Technology Network- it is a good choice.

Finally, if you use Windows the common alternative is to automate the switch using .bat files however I would appreciate any other suggestion since I don't use Windows so often.

Verify your IDE compatibility and update

Please remember that any IDE ecosystem is composed by three levels:

  1. The IDE acting as platform
  2. Programming language support
  3. Plugins to support tools and libraries

After updating your IDE, you should also verify if all of the plugins that make part of your development cycle work fine under Java 11.

Update Maven and Maven projects


Probably the most common choice in Enterprise Java is Maven, and many IDEs use it under the hood or explicitly. Hence, you should update it.

Besides installation, please remember that Maven has a modular architecture and Maven modules version could be forced on any project definition. So, as rule of thumb you should also update these modules in your projects to the latest stable version.

To verify this quickly, you could use versions-maven-plugin:


Which includes a specific goal to verify Maven plugins versions:

mvn versions:display-plugin-updates


After that, you also need to configure Java source and target compatibility, generally this is achieved in two points.

As properties:


As configuration on Maven plugins, specially in maven-compiler-plugin:


Finally, some plugins need to "break" the barriers imposed by Java Modules and Java Platform Teams knows about it. Hence JVM has an argument called illegal-access to allow this, at least during Java 11.

This could be a good idea in plugins like surefire and failsafe which also invoke runtimes that depend on this flag (like Arquillian tests):


Update project dependencies

As mentioned before, you need to check for compatible versions on your Java dependencies. Sometimes these libraries could introduce breaking changes on each major version -e.g. Flyway- and you should consider a time to refactor this changes.

Again, if you use Maven versions-maven-plugin has a goal to verify dependencies version. The plugin will inform you about available updates.:

mvn versions:display-dependency-updates


In the particular case of Java EE, you already have an advantage. If you depend only on APIs -e.g. Java EE, MicroProfile- and not particular implementations, many of these issues are already solved for you.

Include Java/Jakarta EE dependencies


Probably modern REST based services won't need this, however in projects with heavy usage of SOAP and XML marshalling is mandatory to include the Java EE modules removed on Java 11. Otherwise your project won't compile and run.

You must include as dependency:

  • API definition
  • Reference Implementation (if needed)

At this point is also a good idea to evaluate if you could move to Jakarta EE, the evolution of Java EE under Eclipse Foundation.

Jakarta EE 8 is practically Java EE 8 with another name, but it retains package and features compatibility, most of application servers are in the process or already have Jakarta EE certified implementations:

We could swap the Java EE API:


For Jakarta EE API:


After that, please include any of these dependencies (if needed):

Java Beans Activation

Java EE


Jakarta EE


JAXB (Java XML Binding)

Java EE


Jakarta EE





Java EE


Jakarta EE


Implementation (runtime)


Implementation (standalone)


Java Annotation

Java EE


Jakarta EE


Java Transaction

Java EE


Jakarta EE



In the particular case of CORBA, I'm aware of its adoption. There is an independent project in eclipse to support CORBA, based on Glassfish CORBA, but this should be investigated further.

Multiple JVMs in production

If everything compiles, tests and executes. You did a successful migration.

Some deployments/environments run multiple application servers over the same Linux installation. If this is your case it is a good idea to install multiple JVMs to allow stepped migrations instead of big bang.

For instance, RHEL based distributions like CentOS, Oracle Linux or Fedora include various JVM versions:


Most importantly, If you install JVMs outside directly from RPMs(like Oracle HotSpot), Java alternatives will give you support:


However on modern deployments probably would be better to use Docker, specially on Windows which also needs .bat script to automate this task. Most of the JVM distributions are also available on Docker Hub:


September 23, 2020 12:00 AM

Setting Up a Jakarta EE Development Environment with SDKMAN, Eclipse IDE and TomEE MicroProfile

July 29, 2020 12:00 AM

What’s up, folks?! So, in this post, I want to show you how to set up a Jakarta EE development in a clean Linux (Ubuntu) installation. We will set up Java and Maven from a version manager tool called SDKMAN, the Eclipse IDE and the TomEE Application Server. SDKMAN First of all, we need to download the Java Development Kit (JDK). Because Java and the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) are specifications we have some implementations for it, like Amazon Correto, OpenJDK, OracleJDK and many others, for this tutorial, we will use the AdoptOpenJDK.

July 29, 2020 12:00 AM

Secure your JAX-RS APIs with MicroProfile JWT

by Jean-François James at July 13, 2020 03:55 PM

In this article, I want to illustrate in a practical way how to secure your JAX-RS APIs with MicroProfile JWT (JSON Web Token). It is illustrated by a GitHub project using Quarkus, Wildfly, Open Liberty and JWTenizr. A basic knowledge of MP JWT is needed and, if you don’t feel comfortable with that, I invite […]

by Jean-François James at July 13, 2020 03:55 PM

Jakarta EE: Multitenancy with JPA on WildFly, Part 1

by Rhuan Henrique Rocha at July 12, 2020 10:49 PM

In this two-part series, I demonstrate two approaches to multitenancy with the Jakarta Persistence API (JPA) running on WildFly. In the first half of this series, you will learn how to implement multitenancy using a database. In the second half, I will introduce you to multitenancy using a schema. I based both examples on JPA and Hibernate.

Because I have focused on implementation examples, I won’t go deeply into the details of multitenancy, though I will start with a brief overview. Note, too, that I assume you are familiar with Java persistence using JPA and Hibernate.

Multitenancy architecture

Multitenancy is an architecture that permits a single application to serve multiple tenants, also known as clients. Although tenants in a multitenancy architecture access the same application, they are securely isolated from each other. Furthermore, each tenant only has access to its own resources. Multitenancy is a common architectural approach for software-as-a-service (SaaS) and cloud computing applications. In general, clients (or tenants) accessing a SaaS are accessing the same application, but each one is isolated from the others and has its own resources.

A multitenant architecture must isolate the data available to each tenant. If there is a problem with one tenant’s data set, it won’t impact the other tenants. In a relational database, we use a database or a schema to isolate each tenant’s data. One way to separate data is to give each tenant access to its own database or schema. Another option, which is available if you are using a relational database with JPA and Hibernate, is to partition a single database for multiple tenants. In this article, I focus on the standalone database and schema options. I won’t demonstrate how to set up a partition.

In a server-based application like WildFly, multitenancy is different from the conventional approach. In this case, the server application works directly with the data source by initiating a connection and preparing the database to be used. The client application does not spend time opening the connection, which improves performance. On the other hand, using Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs) for container-managed transactions can lead to problems. As an example, the server-based application could do something to generate an error to commit or roll the application back.

Implementation code

Two interfaces are crucial to implementing multitenancy in JPA and Hibernate:

  • MultiTenantConnectionProvider is responsible for connecting tenants to their respective databases and services. We will use this interface and a tenant identifier to switch between databases for different tenants.
  • CurrentTenantIdentifierResolver is responsible for identifying the tenant. We will use this interface to define what is considered a tenant (more about this later). We will also use this interface to provide the correct tenant identifier to MultiTenantConnectionProvider.

In JPA, we configure these interfaces using the persistence.xml file. In the next sections, I’ll show you how to use these two interfaces to create the first three classes we need for our multitenancy architecture: DatabaseMultiTenantProvider, MultiTenantResolver, and DatabaseTenantResolver.


DatabaseMultiTenantProvider is an implementation of the MultiTenantConnectionProvider interface. This class contains logic to switch to the database that matches the given tenant identifier. In WildFly, this means switching to different data sources. The DatabaseMultiTenantProvider class also implements the ServiceRegistryAwareService, which allows us to inject a service during the configuration phase.

Here’s the code for the DatabaseMultiTenantProvider class:

public class DatabaseMultiTenantProvider implements MultiTenantConnectionProvider, ServiceRegistryAwareService{
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
    private static final String TENANT_SUPPORTED = "DATABASE";
    private DataSource dataSource;
    private String typeTenancy ;

    public boolean supportsAggressiveRelease() {
        return false;
    public void injectServices(ServiceRegistryImplementor serviceRegistry) {

        typeTenancy = (String) ((ConfigurationService)serviceRegistry

        dataSource = (DataSource) ((ConfigurationService)serviceRegistry

    public boolean isUnwrappableAs(Class clazz) {
        return false;
    public <T> T unwrap(Class<T> clazz) {
        return null;
    public Connection getAnyConnection() throws SQLException {
        final Connection connection = dataSource.getConnection();
        return connection;

    public Connection getConnection(String tenantIdentifier) throws SQLException {

        final Context init;
        //Just use the multi-tenancy if the hibernate.multiTenancy == DATABASE
        if(TENANT_SUPPORTED.equals(typeTenancy)) {
            try {
                init = new InitialContext();
                dataSource = (DataSource) init.lookup("java:/jdbc/" + tenantIdentifier);
            } catch (NamingException e) {
                throw new HibernateException("Error trying to get datasource ['java:/jdbc/" + tenantIdentifier + "']", e);

        return dataSource.getConnection();

    public void releaseAnyConnection(Connection connection) throws SQLException {
    public void releaseConnection(String tenantIdentifier, Connection connection) throws SQLException {

As you can see, we call the injectServices method to populate the datasource and typeTenancy attributes. We use the datasource attribute to get a connection from the data source, and we use the typeTenancy attribute to find out if the class supports the multiTenancy type. We call the getConnection method to get a data source connection. This method uses the tenant identifier to locate and switch to the correct data source.


MultiTenantResolver is an abstract class that implements the CurrentTenantIdentifierResolver interface. This class aims to provide a setTenantIdentifier method to all CurrentTenantIdentifierResolver implementations:

public abstract class MultiTenantResolver implements CurrentTenantIdentifierResolver {

    protected String tenantIdentifier;

    public void setTenantIdentifier(String tenantIdentifier) {
        this.tenantIdentifier = tenantIdentifier;

This abstract class is simple. We only use it to provide the setTenantIdentifier method.


DatabaseTenantResolver also implements the CurrentTenantIdentifierResolver interface. This class is the concrete class of MultiTenantResolver:

public class DatabaseTenantResolver extends MuiltiTenantResolver {

    private Map<String, String> regionDatasourceMap;

    public DatabaseTenantResolver(){
        regionDatasourceMap = new HashMap();
        regionDatasourceMap.put("default", "MyDataSource");
        regionDatasourceMap.put("america", "AmericaDB");
        regionDatasourceMap.put("europa", "EuropaDB");
        regionDatasourceMap.put("asia", "AsiaDB");

    public String resolveCurrentTenantIdentifier() {

        if(this.tenantIdentifier != null
                && regionDatasourceMap.containsKey(this.tenantIdentifier)){
            return regionDatasourceMap.get(this.tenantIdentifier);

        return regionDatasourceMap.get("default");


    public boolean validateExistingCurrentSessions() {
        return false;


Notice that DatabaseTenantResolver uses a Map to define the correct data source for a given tenant. The tenant, in this case, is a region. Note, too, that this example assumes we have the data sources java:/jdbc/MyDataSource, java:/jdbc/AmericaDB, java:/jdbc/EuropaDB, and java:/jdbc/AsiaDB configured in WildFly.

Configure and define the tenant

Now we need to use the persistence.xml file to configure the tenant:

    <persistence-unit name="jakartaee8">

            <property name="javax.persistence.schema-generation.database.action" value="none" />
            <property name="hibernate.dialect" value="org.hibernate.dialect.PostgresPlusDialect"/>
            <property name="hibernate.multiTenancy" value="DATABASE"/>
            <property name="hibernate.tenant_identifier_resolver" value="net.rhuanrocha.dao.multitenancy.DatabaseTenantResolver"/>
            <property name="hibernate.multi_tenant_connection_provider" value="net.rhuanrocha.dao.multitenancy.DatabaseMultiTenantProvider"/>


Next, we define the tenant in the EntityManagerFactory:

protected EntityManagerFactory emf;

protected EntityManager getEntityManager(String multitenancyIdentifier){

    final MuiltiTenantResolver tenantResolver = (MuiltiTenantResolver) ((SessionFactoryImplementor) emf).getCurrentTenantIdentifierResolver();

    return emf.createEntityManager();

Note that we call the setTenantIdentifier before creating a new instance of EntityManager.


I have presented a simple example of multitenancy in a database using JPA with Hibernate and WildFly. There are many ways to use a database for multitenancy. My main point has been to show you how to implement the CurrentTenantIdentifierResolver and MultiTenantConnectionProvider interfaces. I’ve shown you how to use JPA’s persistence.xml file to configure the required classes based on these interfaces.

Keep in mind that for this example, I have assumed that WildFly manages the data source and connection pool and that EJB handles the container-managed transactions. In the second half of this series, I will provide a similar introduction to multitenancy, but using a schema rather than a database. If you want to go deeper with this example, you can find the complete application code and further instructions on my GitHub repository.

by Rhuan Henrique Rocha at July 12, 2020 10:49 PM

Jakarta EE Cookbook

by Elder Moraes at July 06, 2020 07:19 PM

About one month ago I had the pleasure to announce the release of the second edition of my book, now…

The post Jakarta EE Cookbook appeared first on Elder Moraes.

by Elder Moraes at July 06, 2020 07:19 PM

Workshops: Reactive Apps with Quarkus and OpenShift

by Niklas Heidloff at May 11, 2020 01:19 PM

In the context of cloud-native applications the topic ‘reactive’ becomes more and more important, since more efficient applications can be built and user experiences can be improved. If you want to learn more about reactive functionality in Java applications, read on and try out the sample application and the two new workshops.

Benefits of reactive Applications

In order to demonstrate benefits of reactive applications, I’ve developed a sample application with a web interface that is updated automatically when new data is received rather than pulling for updates. This is more efficient and improves the user experience.

The animation shows how articles can be created via curl commands in the terminal at the bottom. The web application receives a notification and adds the new article to the page.

Another benefit of reactive systems and reactive REST endpoints is efficiency. This scenario describes how to use reactive systems and reactive programming to achieve faster response times. Especially in public clouds where costs depend on CPU, RAM and compute durations this model saves money.

The project contains a sample endpoint which reads data from a database in two different versions, one uses imperative code, the other one reactive code. The reactive stack of this sample provides response times that take less than half of the time compared to the imperative stack: Reactive: 793 ms – Imperative: 1956 ms.


I’ve written two workshops which demonstrate and explain how to build reactive functionality with Quarkus and MicroProfile and how to deploy and run it on OpenShift. You can use Red Hat OpenShift on IBM Cloud or you can run OpenShift locally via Code Ready Containers.

The sample used in the workshops leverages heavily Quarkus which is “a Kubernetes Native Java stack […] crafted from the best of breed Java libraries and standards”. Additionally Eclipse MicroProfile, Eclipse Vert.x, Apache Kafka, PostgreSQL, Eclipse OpenJ9 and Kubernetes are used.

Workshop: Reactive Endpoints with Quarkus on OpenShift

This workshop focusses on how to provide reactive REST APIs and how to invoke services reactively. After you have completed this workshop, you’ll understand the following reactive functionality:

  • Reactive REST endpoints via CompletionStage
  • Exception handling in chained reactive invocations
  • Timeouts via CompletableFuture
  • Reactive REST invocations via MicroProfile REST Client

Open Workshop

Workshop: Reactive Messaging with Quarkus on OpenShift

This workshop focusses on how to do messaging with Kafka and MicroProfile. After you have completed this workshop, you’ll understand the following reactive functionality:

  • Sending and receiving Kafka messages via MicroProfile
  • Sending events from microservices to web applications via Server Sent Events
  • Sending in-memory messages via MicroProfile and Vert.x Event Bus

Open Workshop

Next Steps

To learn more, check out the other articles of this blog series:

The post Workshops: Reactive Apps with Quarkus and OpenShift appeared first on Niklas Heidloff.

by Niklas Heidloff at May 11, 2020 01:19 PM

Monitoring REST APIs with Custom JDK Flight Recorder Events

January 29, 2020 02:30 PM

The JDK Flight Recorder (JFR) is an invaluable tool for gaining deep insights into the performance characteristics of Java applications. Open-sourced in JDK 11, JFR provides a low-overhead framework for collecting events from Java applications, the JVM and the operating system.

In this blog post we’re going to explore how custom, application-specific JFR events can be used to monitor a REST API, allowing to track request counts, identify long-running requests and more. We’ll also discuss how the JFR Event Streaming API new in Java 14 can be used to export live events, making them available for monitoring and alerting via tools such as Prometheus and Grafana.

January 29, 2020 02:30 PM

Enforcing Java Record Invariants With Bean Validation

January 20, 2020 04:30 PM

Record types are one of the most awaited features in Java 14; they promise to "provide a compact syntax for declaring classes which are transparent holders for shallowly immutable data". One example where records should be beneficial are data transfer objects (DTOs), as e.g. found in the remoting layer of enterprise applications. Typically, certain rules should be applied to the attributes of such DTO, e.g. in terms of allowed values. The goal of this blog post is to explore how such invariants can be enforced on record types, using annotation-based constraints as provided by the Bean Validation API.

January 20, 2020 04:30 PM

Jakarta EE 8 CRUD API Tutorial using Java 11

by Philip Riecks at January 19, 2020 03:07 PM

As part of the Jakarta EE Quickstart Tutorials on YouTube, I've now created a five-part series to create a Jakarta EE CRUD API. Within the videos, I'm demonstrating how to start using Jakarta EE for your next application. Given the Liberty Maven Plugin and MicroShed Testing, the endpoints are developed using the TDD (Test Driven Development) technique.

The following technologies are used within this short series: Java 11, Jakarta EE 8, Open Liberty, Derby, Flyway, MicroShed Testing & JUnit 5

Part I: Introduction to the application setup

This part covers the following topics:

  • Introduction to the Maven project skeleton
  • Flyway setup for Open Liberty
  • Derby JDBC connection configuration
  • Basic MicroShed Testing setup for TDD

Part II: Developing the endpoint to create entities

This part covers the following topics:

  • First JAX-RS endpoint to create Person entities
  • TDD approach using MicroShed Testing and the Liberty Maven Plugin
  • Store the entities using the EntityManager

Part III: Developing the endpoints to read entities

This part covers the following topics:

  • Develop two JAX-RS endpoints to read entities
  • Read all entities and by its id
  • Handle non-present entities with a different HTTP status code

Part IV: Developing the endpoint to update entities

This part covers the following topics:

  • Develop the JAX-RS endpoint to update entities
  • Update existing entities using HTTP PUT
  • Validate the client payload using Bean Validation

Part V: Developing the endpoint to delete entities

This part covers the following topics:

  • Develop the JAX-RS endpoint to delete entities
  • Enhance the test setup for deterministic and repeatable integration tests
  • Remove the deleted entity from the database

The source code for the Maven CRUD API application is available on GitHub.

For more quickstart tutorials on Jakarta EE, have a look at the overview page on my blog.

Have fun developing Jakarta EE CRUD API applications,



The post Jakarta EE 8 CRUD API Tutorial using Java 11 appeared first on rieckpil.

by Philip Riecks at January 19, 2020 03:07 PM

Deploy a Jakarta EE application to the root context

by Philip Riecks at January 07, 2020 06:24 AM

With the presence of Docker, Kubernetes and cheaper hardware, the deployment model of multiple applications inside one application server has passed. Now, you deploy one Jakarta EE application to one application server. This eliminates the need for different context paths.  You can use the root context / for your Jakarta EE application. With this blog post, you'll learn how to achieve this for each Jakarta EE application server.

The default behavior for Jakarta EE application server

Without any further configuration, most of the Jakarta EE application servers deploy the application to a context path based on the filename of your .war. If you e.g. deploy your my-banking-app.war application, the server will use the context prefix /my-banking-app for your application. All you JAX-RS endpoints, Servlets, .jsp, .xhtml content is then available below this context, e.g /my-banking-app/resources/customers.

This was important in the past, where you deployed multiple applications to one application server. Without the context prefix, the application server wouldn't be able to route the traffic to the correct application.

As of today, the deployment model changed with Docker, Kubernetes and cheaper infrastructure. You usually deploy one .war within one application server running as a Docker container. Given this deployment model, the context prefix is irrelevant. Mapping the application to the root context / is more convenient.

If you configure a reverse proxy or an Ingress controller (in the Kubernetes world), you are happy if you can just route to / instead of remembering the actual context path (error-prone).

Deploying to root context: Payara & Glassfish

As Payara is a fork of Glassfish, the configuration for both is quite similar. The most convenient way for Glassfish is to place a glassfish-web.xml file in the src/main/webapp/WEB-INF folder of your application:

<!DOCTYPE glassfish-web-app PUBLIC "-// GlassFish Application Server 3.1 Servlet 3.0//EN"

For Payara the filename is payara-web.xml:

<!DOCTYPE payara-web-app PUBLIC "-// Payara Server 4 Servlet 3.0//EN" "">

Both also support configuring the context path of the application within their admin console. IMHO this less convenient than the .xml file solution.

Deploying to root context: Open Liberty

Open Liberty also parses a proprietary web.xml file within src/main/webapp/WEB-INF: ibm-web-ext.xml

  <context-root uri="/"/>

Furthermore, you can also configure the context of your application within your server.xml:


  <httpEndpoint id="defaultHttpEndpoint" httpPort="9080" httpsPort="9443"/>

  <webApplication location="app.war" contextRoot="/" name="app"/>

Deploying to root context: WildFly

WildFly also has two simple ways of configuring the root context for your application. First, you can place a jboss-web.xml within src/main/webapp/WEB-INF:

<!DOCTYPE jboss-web PUBLIC "-//JBoss//DTD Web Application 2.4//EN" "">

Second, while copying your .war file to your Docker container, you can name it ROOT.war:

FROM jboss/wildfly
 ADD target/app.war /opt/jboss/wildfly/standalone/deployments/ROOT.war

For more tips & tricks for each application server, have a look at my cheat sheet.

Have fun deploying your Jakarta EE applications to the root context,


The post Deploy a Jakarta EE application to the root context appeared first on rieckpil.

by Philip Riecks at January 07, 2020 06:24 AM

Jakarta EE: Creating an Enterprise JavaBeans Timer

by Rhuan Henrique Rocha at December 17, 2019 03:33 AM

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) has many interesting and useful features, some of which I will be highlighting in this and upcoming articles. In this article, I’ll show you how to create an EJB timer programmatically and with annotation. Let’s go!

The EJB timer feature allows us to schedule tasks to be executed according a calendar configuration. It is very useful because we can execute scheduled tasks using the power of Jakarta context. When we run tasks based on a timer, we need to answer some questions about concurrency, which node the task was scheduled on (in case of an application in a cluster), what is the action if the task does not execute, and others. When we use the EJB timer we can delegate many of these concerns to Jakarta context and care more about business logic. It is interesting, isn’t it?

Creating an EJB timer programmatically

We can schedule an EJB timer to runs according to a business logic using a programmatic approach. This method can be used when we want a dynamic behavior, according to the parameter values passed to the process. Let’s look at an example of an EJB timer:

import javax.annotation.Resource;
import javax.ejb.SessionContext;
import javax.ejb.Stateless;
import javax.ejb.Timeout;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

public class MyTimer {

    private Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(MyTimer.class.getName());
    private SessionContext context;

    public void initTimer(String message){
        context.getTimerService().createTimer(10000, message);

    public void execute(){"Starting");

        context.getTimerService().getAllTimers().stream().forEach(timer ->;

To schedule this EJB timer, call this method:

private MyTimer myTimer;

After passing 10000 milliseconds, the method annotated with @Timeout will be called.

Scheduling an EJB timer using annotation

We can also create an EJB timer that is automatically scheduled to run according to an annotation configuration. Look at this example:

public class MyTimerAutomatic {

    private Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(MyTimerAutomatic.class.getName());

    @Schedule(hour = "*", minute = "*",second = "0,10,20,30,40,50",persistent = false)
    public void execute(){"Automatic timer executing");


As you can see, to configure an automatic EJB timer schedule, you can annotate the method using @Schedule and configure the calendar attributes. For example:

@Schedule(hour = "*", minute = "*",second = "0,10,20,30,40,50",persistent = false)

As you can see, the method execute is configured to be called every 10 seconds. You can configure whether the timer is persistent as well.


EJB timer is a good EJB feature that is helpful in solving many problems. Using the EJB timer feature, we can schedule tasks to be executed, thereby delegating some responsibilities to Jakarta context to solve for us. Furthermore, we can create persistent timers, control the concurrent execution, and work with it in a clustered environment.  If you want to see the complete example, visit this repository on GitHub.

This post was released at Developer Red Hat blog and you can see here.


by Rhuan Henrique Rocha at December 17, 2019 03:33 AM

Modernizing our GitHub Sync Toolset

November 19, 2019 08:10 PM

I am happy to announce that my team is ready to deploy a new version of our GitHub Sync Toolset on November 26, 2019 from 10:00 to 11:00 am EST.

We are not expecting any disruption of service but it’s possible that some committers may lose write access to their Eclipse project GitHub repositories during this 1 hour maintenance window.

This toolset is responsible for syncronizing Eclipse committers accross all our GitHub repositories and on top of that, this new release will start syncronizing contributors.

In this context, a contributor is a GitHub user with read access to the project GitHub repositories. This new feature will allow committers to assign issues to contributors who currently don’t have write access to the repository. This feature was requested in 2015 via Bug 483563 - Allow assignment of GitHub issues to contributors.

Eclipse Committers are reponsible for maintaining a list of GitHub contributors from their project page on the Eclipse Project Management Infrastructure (PMI).

To become an Eclipse contributor on a GitHub for a project, please make sure to tell us your GitHub Username in your Eclipse account.

November 19, 2019 08:10 PM

A Tool for Jakarta EE Package Renaming in Binaries

by BJ Hargrave ( at October 17, 2019 09:26 PM

In a previous post, I laid out my thinking on how to approach the package renaming problem which the Jakarta EE community now faces. Regardless of whether the community chooses big bang or incremental, there are still existing artifacts in the world using the Java EE package names that the community will need to use together with the new Jakarta EE package names.

Tools are always important to take the drudgery away from developers. So I have put together a tool prototype which can be used to transform binaries such as individual class files and complete JARs and WARs to rename uses of the Java EE package names to their new Jakarta EE package names.

The tools is rule driven which is nice since the Jakarta EE community still needs to define the actual package renames for Jakarta EE 9. The rules also allow the users to control which class files in a JAR/WAR are transformed. Different users may want different rules depending upon their specific needs. And the tool can be used for any package renaming challenge, not just the specific Jakarta EE package renames.

The tools provides an API allowing it to be embedded in a runtime to dynamically transform class files during the class loader definition process. The API also supports transforming JAR files. A CLI is also provided to allow use from the command line. Ultimately, the tool can be packaged as Gradle and Maven plugins to incorporate in a broader tool chain.

Given that the tool is prototype, and there is much work to be done in the Jakarta EE community regarding the package renames, I have started a list of TODOs in the project' issues for known work items.

Please try out the tool and let me know what you think. I am hoping that tooling such as this will ease the community cost of dealing with the package renames in Jakarta EE.

PS. Package renaming in source code is also something the community will need to deal with. But most IDEs are pretty good at this sort of thing, so I think there is probably sufficient tooling in existence for handling the package renames in source code.

by BJ Hargrave ( at October 17, 2019 09:26 PM

Deploying MicroProfile Microservices with Tekton

by Niklas Heidloff at August 08, 2019 02:48 PM

This article describes Tekton, an open-source framework for creating CI/CD systems, and explains how to deploy microservices built with Eclipse MicroProfile on Kubernetes and OpenShift.

What is Tekton?

Kubernetes is the de-facto standard for running cloud-native applications. While Kubernetes is very flexible and powerful, deploying applications is sometimes challenging for developers. That’s why several platforms and tools have evolved that aim to make deployments of applications easier, for example Cloud Foundry’s ‘cf push’ experience, OpenShift’s source to image (S2I), various Maven plugins and different CI/CD systems.

Similarly as Kubernetes has evolved to be the standard for running containers and similarly as Knative is evolving to become the standard for serverless platforms, the goal of Tekton is to become the standard for continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD) platforms.

The biggest companies that are engaged in this project are at this point Google, CloudBees, IBM and Red Hat. Because of its importance the project has been split from Knative which is focussed on scale to zero capabilities.

Tekton comes with a set of custom resources to define and run pipelines:

  • Pipeline: Pipelines can contain several tasks and can be triggered by events or manually
  • Task: Tasks can contain multiple steps. Typical tasks are 1. source to image and 2. deploy via kubectl
  • PipelineRun: This resource is used to trigger pipelines and to pass parameters like location of Dockerfiles to pipelines
  • PipelineResource: This resource is used, for example, to pass links to GitHub repos

MicroProfile Microservice Implementation

I’ve created a simple microservice which is available as open source as part of the cloud-native-starter repo.

The microservice contains the following functionality:

If you want to use this code for your own microservice, remove the three Java files for the REST GET endpoint and rename the service in the pom.xml file and the yaml files.

Setup of the Tekton Pipeline

I’ve created five yaml files that define the pipeline to deploy the sample authors microservice.

1) The file task-source-to-image.yaml defines how to 1. build the image within the Kubernetes cluster and 2. how to push it to a registry.

For building the image kaniko is used, rather than Docker. For application developers this is almost transparent though. As usual images are defined via Dockerfiles. The only difference I ran into is how access rights are handled. For some reason I couldn’t write the ‘server.xml’ file into the ‘/config’ directory. To fix this, I had to manually assign access rights in the Dockerfile first: ‘RUN chmod 777 /config/’.

The source to image task is the first task in the pipeline and has only one step. The screenshot shows a representation of the task in the Tekton dashboard.

2) The file task-deploy-via-kubectl.yaml contains the second task of the pipeline which essentially only runs kubectl commands to deploy the service. Before this can be done, the template yaml file is changed to contain the full image name for the current user and environment.

kind: Task
  name: deploy-via-kubectl
      - name: git-source
        type: git
      - name: pathToDeploymentYamlFile
        description: The path to the yaml file with Deployment resource to deploy within the git source
    - name: update-yaml
      image: alpine
      command: ["sed"]
        - "-i"
        - "-e"
        - "s;authors:1;${inputs.params.imageUrl}:${inputs.params.imageTag};g"
        - "/workspace/git-source/${inputs.params.pathToContext}/${inputs.params.pathToDeploymentYamlFile}"
    - name: run-kubectl-deployment
      image: lachlanevenson/k8s-kubectl
      command: ["kubectl"]
        - "apply"
        - "-f"
        - "/workspace/git-source/${inputs.params.pathToContext}/${inputs.params.pathToDeploymentYamlFile}"

3) The file pipeline.yaml basically only defines the order of the two tasks as well as how to pass parameters between the different tasks.

The screenshot shows the pipeline after it has been run. The output of the third and last steps of the second task ‘deploy to cluster’ is displayed.

4) The file resource-git-cloud-native-starter.yaml only contains the address of the GitHub repo.

kind: PipelineResource
  name: resource-git-cloud-native-starter
  type: git
    - name: revision
      value: master
    - name: url

5) The file pipeline-account.yaml is necessary to define access rights from Tekton to the container registry.

Here are the complete steps to set up the pipeline on the IBM Cloud Kubernetes service. Except of the login capabilities the same instructions should work as well for Kubernetes services on other clouds and the Kubernetes distribution OpenShift.

First get an IBM lite account. It’s free and there is no time restriction. In order to use the Kubernetes service you need to enter your credit card information, but there is a free Kubernetes cluster. After this create a new Kubernetes cluster.

To create the pipeline, invoke these commands:

$ git clone
$ cd cloud-native-starter
$ ROOT_FOLDER=$(pwd)
$ REGISTRY_NAMESPACE=<your-namespace>
$ CLUSTER_NAME=<your-cluster-name>
$ cd ${ROOT_FOLDER}/authors-java-jee
$ ibmcloud login -a -r us-south -g default
$ ibmcloud ks cluster-config --cluster $CLUSTER_NAME
$ export <output-from-previous-command>
$ REGISTRY=$(ibmcloud cr info | awk '/Container Registry  /  {print $3}')
$ ibmcloud cr namespace-add $REGISTRY_NAMESPACE
$ kubectl apply -f deployment/tekton/resource-git-cloud-native-starter.yaml 
$ kubectl apply -f deployment/tekton/task-source-to-image.yaml 
$ kubectl apply -f deployment/tekton/task-deploy-via-kubectl.yaml 
$ kubectl apply -f deployment/tekton/pipeline.yaml
$ ibmcloud iam api-key-create tekton -d "tekton" --file tekton.json
$ cat tekton.json | grep apikey 
$ kubectl create secret generic ibm-cr-push-secret --type="" --from-literal=username=iamapikey --from-literal=password=<your-apikey>
$ kubectl annotate secret ibm-cr-push-secret
$ kubectl apply -f deployment/tekton/pipeline-account.yaml

Execute the Tekton Pipeline

In order to invoke the pipeline, a sixth yaml file pipeline-run-template.yaml is used. As stated above, this file needs to be modified first to contain the exact image name.

The pipeline-run resource is used to define input parameters like the Git repository, location of the Dockerfile, name of the image, etc.

kind: PipelineRun
  generateName: pipeline-run-cns-authors-
    name: pipeline
    - name: git-source
        name: resource-git-cloud-native-starter
    - name: pathToContext
      value: "authors-java-jee"
    - name: pathToDeploymentYamlFile
      value: "deployment/deployment.yaml"
    - name: pathToServiceYamlFile
      value: "deployment/service.yaml"
    - name: imageUrl
      value: <ip:port>/<namespace>/authors
    - name: imageTag
      value: "1"
    - name: pathToDockerFile
      value: "DockerfileTekton"
    type: manual
  serviceAccount: pipeline-account

Invoke the following commands to trigger the pipeline and to test the authors service:

$ cd ${ROOT_FOLDER}/authors-java-jee/deployment/tekton
$ REGISTRY=$(ibmcloud cr info | awk '/Container Registry  /  {print $3}')
$ sed "s+<namespace>+$REGISTRY_NAMESPACE+g" pipeline-run-template.yaml > pipeline-run-template.yaml.1
$ sed "s+<ip:port>+$REGISTRY+g" pipeline-run-template.yaml.1 > pipeline-run-template.yaml.2
$ sed "s+<tag>+1+g" pipeline-run-template.yaml.2 > pipeline-run.yaml
$ cd ${ROOT_FOLDER}/authors-java-jee
$ kubectl create -f deployment/tekton/pipeline-run.yaml
$ kubectl describe pipelinerun pipeline-run-cns-authors-<output-from-previous-command>
$ clusterip=$(ibmcloud ks workers --cluster $CLUSTER_NAME | awk '/Ready/ {print $2;exit;}')
$ nodeport=$(kubectl get svc authors --output 'jsonpath={.spec.ports[*].nodePort}')
$ open http://${clusterip}:${nodeport}/openapi/ui/
$ curl -X GET "http://${clusterip}:${nodeport}/api/v1/getauthor?name=Niklas%20Heidloff" -H "accept: application/json"

After running the pipeline you’ll see two Tekton pods and one authors pod in the Kubernetes dashboard.

Try out this sample yourself!

The post Deploying MicroProfile Microservices with Tekton appeared first on Niklas Heidloff.

by Niklas Heidloff at August 08, 2019 02:48 PM

Jakarta EE, A de facto standard in the making

by David R. Heffelfinger at May 28, 2019 10:06 PM

I’ve been involved in Java EE since the very beginning, Having written one of the first ever books on Java EE. My involvement in Java EE / Jakarta EE has been on an education / advocacy role. Having written books, articles, blog posts and given talks in conferences about the technology. I advocate Jakarta EE not because I’m paid to do so, but because I really believe it is a great technology. I’m a firm believer that the fact that Jakarta EE is a standard, with multiple competing implementations, results in very high quality implementations, since Jakarta EE avoids vendor lock-in and encourages competition, benefiting developers.

Oracle’s donation of Java EE to the Eclipse Foundation was well received and celebrated by the Java EE community. Many prominent community members had been advocating for a more open process for Java EE, which is exactly what Jakarta EE, under the stewardship from the Eclipse Foundation provides.

There are some fundamental changes on how Jakarta EE is managed, that differ from Java EE, that benefit the Jakarta EE community greatly.

Fundamental differences between Java EE and Jakarta EE Management

Some of the differences in the way Jakarta EE is managed as opposed to Java EE are that there is no single vendor controlling the technology, there is free access to the TCK and there is no reference implementation.

No single company controls the standard

First and foremost, we no longer have a single company as a steward of Jakarta EE. Instead, we have several companies who have a vested interest in the success of the technology working together to develop the standard. This has the benefit that the technology is not subject to the whims of any one vendor, and, if any of the vendors loses interest in Jakarta EE, others can easily pick up the slack. The fact that there is no single vendor behind the technology makes Jakarta EE very resilient, it is here to stay.

TCK freely accessible

Something those of us involved heavily in Jakarta EE (and Java EE before), take for granted, but that may not be clear to others, is that Jakarta EE is a set of specifications with multiple implementations. Since the APIs are defined in a specification, they don’t change across Jakarta EE implementations, making Jakarta EE compliant code portable across implementations. For example, a Jakarta EE compliant application should run with minimal or no modifications on popular Jakarta EE implementations such as Apache Tomee, Payara, IBM’s OpenLiberty or Red Hat’s Thorntail

One major change that Jakarta EE has against Java EE is the fact that the Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK) is open source and free. The TCK is a set of test to verify that a Jakarta EE implementation is 100% compliant with all Jakarta EE specifications. With Java EE, organizations wanting to create a Java EE implementation, had to pay large sums of money to gain access to the TCK, once their implementation passed all the tests, their implementation was certified as Java EE compatible. The fact that the TCK was not freely accessible became a barrier to innovation, as smaller organizations and open source developers not always had the funds to get access to the TCK. Now that the TCK is freely accessible, the floodgates will open, and we should see a lot more quality implementations of Jakarta EE.

No reference implementation

Another major change between Java EE and Jakarta EE is that Java EE had the concept of a reference implementation. The idea behind having a Java EE reference implementation was to prove that suggested API specifications were actually feasible to implement. Having a reference implementation, however, had a side effect. If the reference implementation implemented something that wasn’t properly defined in the specification, then many developers expected all Java EE implementations to behave the same way, making the reference implementation a de-facto Java EE specification of sorts. Jakarta EE does away with the concept of a reference implementation, and will have multiple compatible implementations instead. The fact that there isn’t a reference implementation in Jakarta EE will result in more complete specifications, as differences in behavior between implementations will bring to light deficiencies in the specifications, these deficiencies can then be addressed by the community.


With multiple organizations with a vested interest in Jakarta EE’s success, a lowered barrier of entry for new Jakarta EE implementations, and better specifications Jakarta EE will become the de-facto standard in server-side Java development.

by David R. Heffelfinger at May 28, 2019 10:06 PM

I am an Incrementalist: Jakarta EE and package renaming

by BJ Hargrave ( at May 17, 2019 05:11 PM

Eclipse Jakarta EE has been placed in the position that it may not evolve the enterprise APIs under their existing package names. That is, the package names starting with java or javax. See Update on Jakarta EE Rights to Java Trademarksfor the background on how we arrived at this state.

So this means that after Jakarta EE 8 (which is API identical to Java EE 8 from which it descends), whenever an API in Jakarta EE is to be updated for a new specification version, the package names used by the API must be renamed away from java or javax. (Note: some other things will also need to be renamed such as system property names, property file names, and XML schema namespaces if those things start with java or javax. For example, the property file META-INF/services/javax.persistence.PersistenceProvider.) But this also means that if an API does not need to be changed, then it is free to remain in its current package names. Only a change to the signature of a package, that is, adding or removing types in the package or adding or removing members in the existing types in the package, will require a name change to the package.

There has been much discussion on the Jakarta EE mail lists and in blogs about what to do given the above constraint and David Blevins has kindly summed up the two main choices being discussed by the Jakarta EE Specification Committee:

In a nutshell, the two main choices are (1) “Big Bang” and (2) Incremental. Big Bang says: Let’s rename all the packages in all the Jakarta EE specifications all at once for the Jakarta EE release after Jakarta EE 8. Incremental says: Let’s rename packages only when necessary such as when, in the normal course of specification innovation, a Jakarta EE specification project wants to update its API.

I would like to argue that Jakarta EE should chose the Incremental option.

Big Bang has no technical value and large, up-front community costs.

The names of the packages are of little technical value in and of themselves. They just need to be unique and descriptive to programmers. In source code, developers almost never see the package names. They are generally in import statements at the top of the source file and most IDEs kindly collapse the view of the import statements so they are not “in the way” of the developer. So, a developer will generally not really know or care if the Jakarta EE API being used in the source code is a mix of package names starting with java or javax, unchanged since Jakarta EE 8, and updated API with package names starting with jakarta. That is, there is little mental cost to such a mixture. The Jakarta EE 8 API are already spread across many, many package names and developers can easily deal with this. That some will start with java or javax and some with jakarta is largely irrelevant to a developer. The developer mostly works with type and member names which are not subject to the package rename problem.

But once source code is compiled into class files, packaged into artifacts, and distributed to repositories, the package names are baked in to the artifacts and play an important role in interoperation between artifacts: binary compatibility. Modern Java applications generally include many 3rdparty open source artifacts from public repositories such as Maven Central and there are many such artifacts in Maven Central which use the current package names. If Jakarta EE 9 were to rename all packages, then the corpus of existing artifacts is no longer usable in Jakarta EE 9 and later. At least not without some technical “magic” in builds, deployments, and/or runtimes to attempt to rename package references on-the-fly. Such magic may be incomplete and will break jar signatures and will complicate builds and tool chains. It will not be transparent.

Jakarta EE must minimize the inflection point/blast radius on the Java community caused by the undesired constraint to rename packages if they are changed. The larger the inflection point, the more reason you give to developers to consider alternatives to Jakarta EE and to Java in general. The Incremental approach minimizes the inflection point providing an evolutionary approach to the package naming changes rather than the revolutionary approach of the Big Bang.

Some Jakarta EE specification may never be updated. They have long been stable in the Java EE world and will likely remain so in Jakarta EE. So why rename their packages? The Big Bang proposal even recognizes this by indicating that some specification will be “frozen” in their current package names. But, of course, there is the possibility that one day, Jakarta EE will want to update a frozen specification. And then the package names will need to be changed. The Incremental approach takes this approach to all Jakarta EE specifications. Only rename packages when absolutely necessary to minimize the impact on the Java community.

Renaming packages incrementally, as needed, does not reduce the freedom of action for Jakarta EE to innovate. It is just a necessary part of the first innovation of a Jakarta EE specification.

A Big Bang approach does not remove the need to run existing applications on earlier platform versions.  It increases the burden on customers since they must update all parts of their application for the complete package renaming when the need to access a new innovation in a single updated Jakarta EE specification when none of the other Jakarta EE specifications they use have any new innovations. Just package renames for no technical reason.  It also puts a large burden on all application server vendors. Rather than having to update parts of their implementations to support the package name changes of a Jakarta EE specification when the specification is updated for some new innovation, they must spend a lot of resources to support both old and new packages name for the implementations of all Jakarta EE specifications.

There are some arguments in favor of a Big Bang approach. It “gets the job done” once and for all and for new specifications and implementations the old java or javax package names will fade from collective memories. In addition, the requirement to use a certified Java SE implementation licensed by Oracle to claim compliance with Eclipse Jakarta EE evaporates once there are no longer any java or javax package names in a Jakarta EE specification. However, these arguments do not seem sufficient motivation to disrupt the ability of all existing applications to run on a future Jakarta EE 9 platform.

In general, lazy evaluation is a good strategy in programming. Don’t do a thing until the thing needs to be done. We should apply that strategy in Jakarta EE to package renaming and take the Incremental approach. Finally, I am reminded of Æsop’s fable, The Tortoise & the Hare. “The race is not always to the swift.”

by BJ Hargrave ( at May 17, 2019 05:11 PM

Specification Scope in Jakarta EE

by waynebeaton at April 08, 2019 02:56 PM

With the Eclipse Foundation Specification Process (EFSP) a single open source specification project has a dedicated project team of committers to create and maintain one or more specifications. The cycle of creation and maintenance extends across multiple versions of the specification, and so while individual members may come and go, the team remains and it is that team that is responsible for the every version of that specification that is created.

The first step in managing how intellectual property rights flow through a specification is to define the range of the work encompassed by the specification. Per the Eclipse Intellectual Property Policy, this range of work (referred to as the scope) needs to be well-defined and captured. Once defined, the scope is effectively locked down (changes to the scope are possible but rare, and must be carefully managed; the scope of a specification can be tweaked and changed, but doing so requires approval from the Jakarta EE Working Group’s Specification Committee).

Regarding scope, the EFSP states:

Among other things, the Scope of a Specification Project is intended to inform companies and individuals so they can determine whether or not to contribute to the Specification. Since a change in Scope may change the nature of the contribution to the project, a change to a Specification Project’s Scope must be approved by a Super-majority of the Specification Committee.

As a general rule, a scope statement should not be too precise. Rather, it should describe the intention of the specification in broad terms. Think of the scope statement as an executive summary or “elevator pitch”.

Elevator pitch: You have fifteen seconds before the elevator doors open on your floor; tell me about the problem your specification addresses.

The scope statement must answer the question: what does an implementation of this specification do? The scope statement must be aspirational rather than attempt to capture any particular state at any particular point-in-time. A scope statement must not focus on the work planned for any particular version of the specification, but rather, define the problem space that the specification is intended to address.

For example:

Jakarta Batch provides describes a means for executing and managing batch processes in Jakarta EE applications.


Jakarta Message Service describes a means for Jakarta EE applications to create, send, and receive messages via loosely coupled, reliable asynchronous communication services.

For the scope statement, you can assume that the reader has a rudimentary understanding of the field. It’s reasonable, for example, to expect the reader to understand what “batch processing” means.

I should note that the two examples presented above are just examples of form. I’m pretty sure that they make sense, but defer to the project teams to work with their communities to sort out the final form.

The scope is “sticky” for the entire lifetime of the specification: it spans versions. The plan for any particular development cycle must describe work that is in scope; and at the checkpoint (progress and release) reviews, the project team must be prepared to demonstrate that the behavior described by the specifications (and tested by the corresponding TCK) cleanly falls within the scope (note that the development life cycle of specification project is described in Eclipse Foundation Specification Process Step-by-Step).

In addition the specification scope which is required by the Eclipse Intellectual Property Policy and EFSP, the specification project that owns and maintains the specification needs a project scope. The project scope is, I think, pretty straightforward: a particular specification project defines and maintains a specification.

For example:

The Jakarta Batch project defines and maintains the Jakarta Batch specification and related artifacts.

Like the specification scope, the project scope should be aspirational. In this regard, the specification project is responsible for the particular specification in perpetuity. Further the related artifacts, like APIs and TCKs can be in scope without actually being managed by the project right now.

Today, for example, most of the TCKs for the Jakarta EE specifications are rolled into the Jakarta EE TCK project. But, over time, this single monster TCK may be broken up and individual TCKs moved to corresponding specification projects. Or not. The point is that regardless of where the technical artifacts are currently maintained, they may one day be part of the specification project, so they are in scope.

I should back up a bit and say that our intention right now is to turn the “Eclipse Project for …” projects that we have managing artifacts related to various specifications into actual specification projects. As part of this effort, we’ll add Git repositories to these projects to provide a home for the specification documents (more on this later). A handful of these proto-specification projects currently include artifacts related to multiple specifications, so we’ll have to sort out what we’re going to do about those project scope statements.

We might consider, for example, changing the project scope of the Jakarta EE Stable APIs (note that I’m guessing a future new project name) to something simple like:

Jakarta EE Stable APIs provides a home for stable (legacy) Jakarta EE specifications and related artifacts which are no longer actively developed.

But, all that talk about specification projects aside, our initial focus needs to be on describing the scope of the specifications themselves. With that in mind, the EE4J PMC has created a project board with issues to track this work and we’re going to ask the project teams to start working with their communities to put these scope statements together. If you have thoughts regarding the scope statements for a particular specification, please weigh in.

Note that we’re in a bit of a weird state right now. As we engage in a parallel effort to rename the specifications (and corresponding specification projects), it’s not entirely clear what we should call things. You’ll notice that the issues that have been created all use the names that we guess we’re going to end up using (there’s more more information about that in Renaming Java EE Specifications for Jakarta EE).

by waynebeaton at April 08, 2019 02:56 PM

Renaming Java EE Specifications for Jakarta EE

by waynebeaton at April 04, 2019 02:17 PM

It’s time to change the specification names…

When we first moved the APIs and TCKs for the Java EE specifications over to the Eclipse Foundation under the Jakarta EE banner, we kept the existing names for the specifications in place, and adopted placeholder names for the open source projects that hold their artifacts. As we prepare to engage in actual specification work (involving an actual specification document), it’s time to start thinking about changing the names of the specifications and the projects that contain their artifacts.

Why change? For starters, it’s just good form to leverage the Jakarta brand. But, more critically, many of the existing specification names use trademarked terms that make it either very challenging or impossible to use those names without violating trademark rules. Motivation for changing the names of the existing open source projects that we’ll turn into specification projects is, I think, a little easier: “Eclipse Project for …” is a terrible name. So, while the current names for our proto-specification projects have served us well to-date, it’s time to change them. To keep things simple, we recommend that we just use the name of the specification as the project name. 

With this in mind, we’ve come up with a naming pattern that we believe can serve as a good starting point for discussion. To start with, in order to keep things as simple as possible, we’ll have the project use the same name as the specification (unless there is a compelling reason to do otherwise).

The naming rules are relatively simple:

  • Replace “Java” with “Jakarta” (e.g. “Java Message Service” becomes “Jakarta Message Service”);
  • Add a space in cases where names are mashed together (e.g. “JavaMail” becomes “Jakarta Mail”);
  • Add “Jakarta” when it is missing (e.g. “Expression Language” becomes “Jakarta Expression Language”); and
  • Rework names to consistently start with “Jakarta” (“Enterprise JavaBeans” becomes “Jakarta Enterprise Beans”).

This presents us with an opportunity to add even more consistency to the various specification names. Some, for example, are more wordy or descriptive than others; some include the term “API” in the name, and others don’t; etc.

We’ll have to sort out what we’re going to do with the Eclipse Project for Stable Jakarta EE Specifications, which provides a home for a small handful of specifications which are not expected to change. I’ll personally be happy if we can at least drop the “Eclipse Project for” from the name (“Jakarta EE Stable”?). We’ll also have to sort out what we’re going to do about the Eclipse Mojarra and Eclipse Metro projects which hold the APIs for some specifications; we may end up having to create new specification projects as homes for development of the corresponding specification documents (regardless of how this ends up manifesting as a specification project, we’re still going to need specification names).

Based on all of the above, here is my suggested starting point for specification (and most project) names (I’ve applied the rules described above; and have suggested tweaks for consistency by strike out):

  • Jakarta APIs for XML Messaging
  • Jakarta Architecture for XML Binding
  • Jakarta API for XML-based Web Services
  • Jakarta Common Annotations
  • Jakarta Enterprise Beans
  • Jakarta Persistence API
  • Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection
  • Jakarta EE Platform
  • Jakarta API for JSON Binding
  • Jakarta Servlet
  • Jakarta API for RESTful Web Services
  • Jakarta Server Faces
  • Jakarta API for JSON Processing
  • Jakarta EE Security API
  • Jakarta Bean Validation
  • Jakarta Mail
  • Jakarta Beans Activation Framework
  • Jakarta Debugging Support for Other Languages
  • Jakarta Server Pages Standard Tag Library
  • Jakarta EE Platform Management
  • Jakarta EE Platform Application Deployment
  • Jakarta API for XML Registries
  • Jakarta API for XML-based RPC
  • Jakarta Enterprise Web Services
  • Jakarta Authorization Contract for Containers
  • Jakarta Web Services Metadata
  • Jakarta Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers
  • Jakarta Concurrency Utlities
  • Jakarta Server Pages
  • Jakarta Connector Architecture
  • Jakarta Dependency Injection
  • Jakarta Expression Language
  • Jakarta Message Service
  • Jakarta Batch
  • Jakarta API for WebSocket
  • Jakarta Transaction API

We’re going to couple renaming with an effort to capture proper scope statements (I’ll cover this in my next post). The Eclipse EE4J PMC Lead, Ivar Grimstad, has blogged about this recently and has created a project board to track the specification and project renaming activity (as of this writing, it has only just been started, so watch that space). We’ll start reaching out to the “Eclipse Project for …”  teams shortly to start engaging this process. When we’ve collected all of the information (names and scopes), we’ll engage in a restructuring review per the Eclipse Development Process (EDP) and make it all happen (more on this later).

Your input is requested. I’ll monitor comments on this post, but it would be better to collect your thoughts in the issues listed on the project board (after we’ve taken the step to create them, of course), on the related issue, or on the EE4J PMC’s mailing list.


by waynebeaton at April 04, 2019 02:17 PM

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